&lt;sec&gt; &lt;heading&gt;&lt;/heading&gt; &lt;para&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/para&gt; &lt;/sec&gt;
&amp;amp;lt;sec&amp;amp;gt; &amp;amp;lt;heading&amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;lt;/heading&amp;amp;gt; &amp;amp;lt;para&amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;nbsp;&amp;amp;lt;/para&amp;amp;gt; &amp;amp;lt;/sec&amp;amp;gt;
&lt;sec&gt; &lt;heading&gt;&lt;/heading&gt; &lt;para&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/para&gt; &lt;/sec&gt;
This research was conducted over three-month period (entomological months) covering the territory of the villages of Gajre and Lisec in Sharr Mountain. The material has been accumulated over the months; May-June-July 2019 at some researched points for which are presented; geographical position, altitude by GPS, habitat characteristics and date of material collection.
Ketscher method was used to collect the material and this material was transported to the Ecology Lab at Sun Hill (Popova Shapka) for preparation and determination. The determination was performed using a No.407TBL stereomicroscope and all this work was completed with the description of 73 species belonging to 40 genera and 5 families. This territory is poorly explored earlier by different researchers and with our work, we hope to complete the scientific data about the biological diversity of rhopalocera in this area.
Keywords: Rhopalocera, biodiversity, Gajre, Lisec, Sharr Mountain.
The quality of human life on this planet will depend to a major degree on the ability to provide the social, natural and health sciences with a suite of indicators (including biomarkers) which will define the status of ecosystem and landscape health and which will ascertain the capacity of the ecosystems to sustain life (ecosystem health network, 2003). Based on the global changes of the environmental pollution, different countries are trying to make a strategy for monitoring those disorders that appear in different ecosystems.
Changes of the environmental pollution is monitoring by human micronucleus method with fluorescent microscopy.
The prevalence of chronic wounds in developed countries is 1-2% of the general population and is similar to the prevalence of heart diseases. Unfortunately, the morbidity and cost of treating chronic wounds are often ignored by society because they are considered a multidisciplinary problem. According to the latest data in the USA, in just one year 6.5 million people sought medical care for chronic wounds that cost the state $ 25 million.
Chronic wounds are wounds in which the order and period of reparative processes are impaired. This makes it impossible to establish anatomical and functional tissue integrity. Chronic wounds significantly affect the health and quality of life of the patients and their families, causing pain, disability, depression, social isolation, financial costs, prolonged hospitalization and death.
Material and method – The study included 30 patients over 18 years of age with wounds persisting for more than 4 weeks and being greater than 1 cm².
Results – Results showed a significant reduction in wound surface area in all three groups. (after 40 HBOT exposures in the first two groups) over a two-month period (p <0.01). Conclusion - Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an adjuvant treatment along with standard wound treatment enables their more effective healing, thereby reducing hospitalization, disability and improving the quality of life of patients. Of the two HBOT protocols, the protocol 2.2 ATA 90 minutes and 40 exposures showed better results in the treatment of wounds. Keywords: Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT), chronic wound, oxygen, ATA.
Chronic Renal Disease (SRK) means a chronic and progressive kidney injury. This injury develops slowly and secretively, which often causes the sick to be diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. In a number of cases it is not possible to determine who is the cause of this disease. A person may have kidney damage many years before it is necessary to begin treatment with dialysis or transplant. Other accompanying diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or recurrent urinary tract infections may be the cause of renal disease. An important feature of this disease is progressive kidney damage even when it is possible to determine the cause and treat the underlying disease. In many patients, although the kidneys are damaged, they may continue to produce urine, but their efficacy in eliminating blood toxins, such as he is injured. For this reason, these substances will continue to circulate and accumulate in the body. Therefore you can not evaluate the function of the kidney only through the amount of urine produced. Some patients even in very advanced stages of the disease or even in dialysis may continue to produce a urine amount. In cases where damage to kidney function is greatly enhanced, the onset of dialysis or transplant replacement replacement therapy is needed.
Key words: Chronic kidney disease, kidney failure, dialysis, renal therapy, urine.
Conjunctivitis refers to any inflammatory condition of the membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the exposed surface of the sclera. It is the most common cause of “red eye”. The etiology can usually be determined by a careful history and an ocular examination, but culture is occasionally necessary to establish the diagnosis or to guide therapy. Conjunctivitis is commonly caused by bacteria and viruses. Neisseria infection should be suspected when severe, bilateral, purulent conjunctivitis is present in a sexually active adult or in a neonate three to five days postpartum. Conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae requires aggressive antibiotic therapy, but conjunctivitis due to other bacteria is usually self-limited. Chronic conjunctivitis is usually associated with blepharitis, recurrent styes or meibomianitis.
Treatment requires good eyelid hygiene and the application of topical antibiotics as determined by culture. Allergic conjunctivitis is distinguished by severe itching and allergen exposure. This condition is generally treated with topical antihistamines, mast-cell stabilizers or anti-inflammatory agents.
Determination of coagulant builders and fibrinolytic system indicates thrombin activity and fibrinolysis growth by following fibrin formation during pregnancy. Changes in biochemical coagulant parameters during pregnancy are common in all cases. D-dimmers are a unique marker of fibrin degradation formed by the action of three enzymes: thrombin, coagulation factor XIIIa and plasmin and the identification of this antigen is an indicator to prevent thromboembolic diseases such as thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and deep vein thrombosis.
D-dimmers are often used as indicators of importance also to pregnant women based on negative values that may appear. D-dimmers grow progressively during pregnancy, increasing the risk and taking into account the change of other parameters during this stage. It should also be noted that D-dimmers are also indicative in many other disorders such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, intravascular coagulation disorders, edema, cardiac aorta disease, and so on. It is also commonly known that normal pregnancy is associated with hypercoagulable conditions.
Key words: D-dimmers, edema, thromboembolic diseases, pregnancy, fibrinogen, pulmonary embolism.
Menopause is defined as the point in time when menstrual cycles permanently cease due to the natural depletion of ovarian oocytes from aging. The diagnosis is typically made retrospectively after the woman has missed menses for 12 consecutive months. It marks the permanent end of fertility and the average age of menopause is 51 years.
Menopause is associated with somatic, vasomotor, psychological, and sexual complaints that may affect quality of life. We determined the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms and their impact on the quality of life among women visiting primary care centers in Republic of North Macedonia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November 2010. In total, 119 women aged 45–60 years were randomly interviewed using a questionnaire. Participants were divided into three categories: premenopausal (n=31), perimenopausal (n=49), and post- menopausal (n=39). The Menopause Rating Scale
(MRS) assessed the prevalence and severity of eleven menopausal symptoms. Mean scores of menopausal categories were compared for different symptoms.
The mean age at menopause was 48.3 x 3 years (median, 49 years). The symptoms reported to be most prevalent were joint and muscle pain (80.7%), physical and mental exhaustion (64.7%), and hot flushes and sweating (47.1%). Somatic and psychological symptoms were highly prevalent in perimenopausal women compared to other groups. The mean overall quality-of-life score was higher in perimenopausal women, while the total MRS score indicated that the symptoms were mild in severity.
Keywords: menopause, menopausal transition, menopause rating scale, quality of life.
Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by lack of insulin due to a body unable to produce insulin at normal levels or due to insulin resistance, a condition in which insulin-resistant body cells are implicated in regulating blood sugar levels .The term HbA1c refers to the glycemic hemoglobin. It develops when hemoglobin, a protein inside the red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body, joins glucose into the blood, becoming ‘glycated’.By measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), doctors are able to get a general overview of the average blood sugar levels over a weekly / monthly period.For people with diabetes this is important since
HbA1c is higher, the greater the risk of developing complications related to diabetes. HbA1c is also referred to as hemoglobin A1c or simply A1c. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to metabolize glucose, a form of sugar that is one of the main sources of energy cell supply. If diabetes is caused by insulin resistance or lack of insulin, the end result in both cases is the same: the body is unable to transport sufficient glucose through the bloodstream in cells, especially after food, when sugar levels in blood grow as a natural consequence of digestion. 
Key words: HbA1c, diabetes, glycolized hemoglobin, insulin.
Taking into consideration how current is the emigration situation of Kosovars, this makes us go deeper into this issue and understand what were the causes of their emigration. Results from the primary data from the research and the use of secondary data for the theoretical part have proven to achieve the purpose of the work, the
recognition of the current situation in Kosovo and the needs of pupils, the conclusion of the findings and the giving of recommendations to the people surveyed and not only to them but also to all those interested in this paper. This paper contributes to sensitizing Kosovar Albanians to the importance of having a birthplace and not
immigrating to other countries.
Key words: emigration situation, people surveyed, sensitizing, Kosovar Albanians.
Glycogen metabolism has important implications for the functioning of the brain, especially the cooperation between astrocytes and neurons. According to various research data, in a glycogen deficiency (for example during hypoglycemia) glycogen supplies are used to generate lactate, which is then transported to neighboring
neurons. Likewise, during periods of intense activity of the nervous system, when the energy demand exceeds supply, astrocyte glycogen is immediately converted to lactate, some of which is transported to the neurons. Thus, glycogen from astrocytes functions as a kind of protection against hypoglycemia, ensuring preservation of
neuronal function. The neuro protective effect of lactate during hypoglycemia or cerebral ischemia has been reported in literature. This review goes on to emphasize that while neurons and astrocytes differ in metabolic profile, they interact to form a common metabolic cooperation.
Lactate concentration is reduced in the cerebral cortex in type 2 diabetes, in connection with the inhibition of glycogen degradation. Lower amounts of lactate are also due to the presence of a glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor. Glycolysis is activated in the presence of a glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor.
Keywords: astrocytes, brain, glucose, glycogen, neurons, lactate dehydrogenase, piruvate kinase.
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are the most common examples of congenital mortality infections and increased mortality of newborns. The risk of intrauterine infection depends heavily on maternal infection during pregnancy. Skrining the timely test for CMV infection is done during pregnancy.
This research will contribute to avoiding cases of infections and the elimination of spontaneous premature abortions in the field of gynecology. The largest number of people who work with sick newborns and children are not at risk of contracting CMV. However, there is a possibility of a mother in a child who has previously had
no CMV infection transmitted in utero (in the period when it is found in her uterus).
CMV is most commonly transmitted among young children, because CMV is also contacted by infected bodily fluids causing urine and saliva, children who preserve children (persons working in the education of children and therapists) should be educated for CMV infections and to practice preventative measures.
Cytomegaloviruses can cause serious problems to persons with weakened immunity and children whose immune system is still developing. Infection called Citomegalovirus can be dangerous for pregnant women, in fact for the baby they are carrying.
Keywords: Citomegallovirus human (CMV), atypical lymphocytosis, congenital anomaly, thrombocytopenia,
Tireoperoxidase (TPO) is an enzyme that participates in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, catalyzing the oxidation of iodine to tyrosine residue in thyroglobulin for the synthesis of thiotironin (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Anti-TPO antibodies activate complement and are involved in thyroid gland dysfunction and hypoglycemia
pathogenesis. Determination of anti TPO level is a highly sensitive test for the detection of autoimmune thyroid disease such as Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves disease. Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as the high level of TSH with normal levels of FT4 and FT3. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with high risk for
cardiovascular disorders and increased risk for atherosclerosis, systolic and diastolic dysfunction in general, which may lead to lower functional capacity of the heart.
Hypothyroidism is a thyroid gland disorder that affects 3-5% of the population. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is the thyroiditis Hashimoto. The thyroid gland may be enlarged (stomach or gut) and has a reduced ability to produce thyroid hormones (T3 and T4).
Key words: Hypothyroidism, thyroid gland, hormonal status, autoimmune disease.
Arterial hypertension (HTA) still remains one of the most important and most common factors of disease worldwide. Between norm tension and arterial hypertension there is no definite definition but according to allpreferences and the World Health Organization all values of systolic pressure> 140 mmHg and diastolic> 90 mmHg are treated as HTA. Numerous clinical studies have shown that adequate and timely HTA and dyslipidemia treatment of patients with chronic CKD significantly reduced the rate of myocardial infarction.
Determination of lipid abnormalities in CKD patients accompanied by HTA in the early stages of the disease as well as the discovery of etiopathogenic mechanisms can significantly assist in the prevention and prevention of their consequences, thereby significantly reducing the occurrence of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular and aroogenetic processes of the blood vessels.
Atherosclerosis (ATH) is defined as a variable combination of arterial wall changes consisting of accumulation of lipids, sugars, blood, blood products, fibrous tissue, and calcium deposition associated with most changes in blood vessel tunic.
Key words: Arterial hypertension (HTA), atherosclerosis, atherogenetic processes of blood vessels.
The cardiovascular system involves the heart, arteries, capillaries and veins. The cardiovascular system also distributes blood in whole body parts.
Contemporary lifestyle trends, nutrition, social factor, smoking, physical inactivity, and many other factors may be a potential cause for cardiovascular disease. Depending on the action, these factors may have an exogenous and endogenous character, hence the early detection of these factors can be considered as a precautionary andgenuine measure for the early identification of these diseases.
The 70s of the last century are counted as years in which the cardiovascular system took off and are manifested in the form of an unbound epidemic in the world with special emphasis on industrialized countries. Worldwide appearance of heart and blood vessels resulting in high mortality is due to rapid industrialization, rising living
standards of a part of the population, changing living conditions, increased stress on industrialized people, unemployment added, food, living conditions, etc. Dislipidemies represent important risk factors in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Otherwise, dyslipidemia is defined as pathological condition followed by
high values of total triglyceride cholesterol, pre-beta and LDL cholesterol fraction, reduction of alpha fraction and HDL cholesterol levels.
Key words: Cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia, screening of the new population, pre-beta fractions.
Obesity is a major public-health problem worldwide. It has been associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) which is an interrelated cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes such as hyperglycemia, raised blood pressure, elevated triglyceride levels, low high-density lipoprotein
cholesterol levels, and central obesity. The growing rates of this obesity-related syndrome have spurred the search for greater insight about mechanisms contributing to the development of MS, especially those reflecting a dysfunction of adipose tissue, which probably plays a major role in its development.
Adiponectin, a hormone expressed in adipose tissue and encoded by the ADIPOQ gene (chromosome 3q27), plays an important role in regulating insulin sensitivity, glucose and lipid metabolism besides anti-inflammatory and anti atherogenic properties. Its high molecular weight (HMW) isoform is the major responsible for these
functions. In the presence of obesity, adiponectin release is down regulated resulting in reduced circulating levels.
Key words: Metabolic syndrome, Obesity, Adiponectin.
Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin on the head is not a rare malignancy, but the clear cell type is a rare variant of SCC in which no clear risk factor has been suggested as possible etiology. Presentation of Case: This is a case is of a 68-year-old male who presented with a ulcerative tumor on the skin
in the parietal region of the head. Histology showed clear cell variant, well differentiated SCC. The patient was referred for radical resection followed by medical and radiation oncology. Lobules of malignant squamous epithelial cells with abundant cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei in the connective tissue were observed following
histopathology. Neoplastic cells constituting majority of lobules exhibited clear cell changes. Immunohistochemical study showed diffuse positivity for CKAE1/AE3, p63,and EMA. The neoplastic cells showed complete negative reaction with antibodies for vimentin and smooth muscle actin.
Conclusion: SCC of the skin is a challenging entity. It is diagnosed mainly by clinical and deep biopsies are used to confirm the diagnosis. The clear cell variant of SCC is histologically similar to sebaceous neoplasms but distinguishing features include evidence of squamous differentiation in clear cell SCC which was seen in this
case. Other differential diagnosis include clear cell acanthoma, clear cell hidradenoma, clear cell hidradenocarcinoma, tricholemmoma, pilar tumor, balloon cell nevus, balloon cell melanoma, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Keywords: Squamous cell carcinoma, Clear cell variant, head skin tumor.
Smoking makes us bad, we all know this. Also by his drinking we can die. Every year, worldwide, the number of deaths due to tobacco is growing at frightening rates. But the effects of cigarettes in the human body are numerous and they affect daily in the life of smokers. Tobacco during the combustion releases 4,000 substances
from nicotine and carbon monoxide to tarp, benzoprene-containing substances, radioactive cobalt, which are among the causes of lung cancer. If we make a list of the damages caused directly by tobacco, those affected or exacerbated by it, it will be too long.
Given that smoking affects almost every body of the body by joining its pendant quality and its extensive use, it is a dangerous psychoactive drug. Its effects are calming and relieving pain, but it also has a stimulating role. You happen to be addicted to physiological and psychological and have severe withdrawal symptoms and a desire to smoke, which makes this one of the most unmanageable situations as you are addicted.
Much of the use of tobacco begins in childhood or adolescence. Dangerous cigarette smoking factors include: peer and parent influences, behavioral problems (eg poor performance at school), personality traits, such as rebellion or risk taking, depression and anxiety as well as genetic influences. The desire of teenagers to look
older and more sophisticated, such as competition and role models when it is another powerful motivator. It is also thought to contribute to environmental impacts as advertisements.
Key words: smoking, teens, health, benzoprene-containing substances, powerful motivator.
Hyperlipidemia – is an abnormal increase in the content of various lipoprotein fractions in the blood composition. The presence of hyperlipidemia in humans is a risk factor for the occurrence of progressive chronic heart and blood vessels, increasing in this pathology. In addition, a significant increase in the various lipid fractions promotes signs of pancreatitis.
Due to the fact that most of the lipid fractions are indirectly involved in the formation of athermanous platelets in the vascular lumen, this condition sooner or later leads to trophic disorders in the human body tissue, due to the effect of prolonged ischemia.
According to world statistics, about a quarter of the planet’s population suffers from disorders caused by a rise in plasma lipids, especially cholesterol. During randomized studies showing that males are characteristic physiological indicators increased compared to lipidohramy are women. And women have a compensatory
increase in lipids during menopause. The process of excessive accumulation of various lipid fractions in the human body, such as blood plasma, affects a large number of factors, some of which are suitable for correction medication and medication methods and others belong to the category of the perpetual risk factors.
Key words: hiperipideamia, lipids, function of lipids, alternative medicine.
Cardiovascular disease (SEA) is the leading cause of death worldwide and continues to grow in prevalence compared with previous decades, partly due to aging population (1). Atherosclerotic CVD begins at a very young age and progresses over time allowing sufficient time for early screening and early detection (2).
However, the use of biomarkers for various cardiology purposes remains an important field of research that has been explored by scientists over the years and many new developments are underway. Therefore, a detailed description of all biomarkers currently being used or investigated for future use in the field of cardiovascular
medicine is more than necessary.
Cardiac Troponin (cTnI) is a specific cardiac biomarker that is released during myocardial necrosis; it reaches peak blood pressure after about 11 hours (6). Compared to myoglobin and creatine kinase-MB.cTnI is more sensitive and specific to myocardial infarction (IAM) (7). As such, it is recommended as the underlying cardiac
marker for the diagnosis of IAM (8). Therefore, the development of appropriate cTnI detection analysis in accordance with rapid and accurate early detection and is very useful for the prevention of heart disease Troponin T (TnT) is associated with tropomyosin (Tm) to anchor troponin complex in thin filaments, and thus
serves as a vital link in the Ca2+ contraction of striated muscle contraction.
Key words: Cardiovascular disease, nutrition, biomarkers, risk factors.
Internationally accurate information regarding rates of male infertility is chronically lacking, and has not been accurately reported and this is because of cultural differences and societies that underestimate the male factor. One of those countries that face this problem is also North Macedonia, but not only, we still don’t have numbers of infertile couples in Balkan Peninsula also.
Because of this, Above we will analyze semen parameters of males in the region of south-western part of North Macedonia, which includes this municipalities: Kicevo, Ohrid, Debarca, Struga, Vevcani, CentarZupa and Debar (according to the change in the territorial division in 2014) and looking forward in conduction further
studies in the field of male infertility.
Semen parameters of 1368 men were evaluated according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization in standardized laboratories in Ohrid and Bitola.
The analysis showed that: 55.8% of men were normozoospermic, 4.1% azoospermic, 8.7% oligozoospermic, 9.5% oligoastenozoospermic, 10.2% astenozoospermic, 2.6% oligoteratozoospermic, 2.6% teratozoospermic and 6.4% were oligoasthenoteratozoospermic. So, 44.2% of men were below the optimal parameters
recommended by World Health Organization. Our results are consistent with the generally observed worldwide trend for making men responsible in 50% of
cases. Semen analysis is an indispensable diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the male partner of infertile couples.
Keywords: Male infertility, semen parameters, infertility evaluation, North Macedonia.
Globally, anemia affects 1.62 billion people worldwide, corresponding to 24.8% of the population. The highest prevalence is in pre-school children (47.4%), and the prevalence is low in males (12.7%). However, the population group with the highest number of affected individuals is non-pregnant women (468.4 million).
Statistical comparisons have been made for differences in values between men and women and between different ages.
Lack of iron is the most widespread food shortage in the world. This deficiency affects about 2 billion people in the world. Although science has advanced a lot and the information is easily accessible, ¼ of the world’s population remains anemic, half of whom suffer from lack of iron in food. In adult males and at the age of three,
this anemia is caused as a result of chronic blood loss. In children and women, anemia may result from insufficient iron intake due to diet, blood loss, low red blood cell production or frequent pregnancy.
Generally, 90% of the iron entering the body is reused and the food replaces its scarce losses through sweat, facials, hair, nails and urine, while women in the reproduction period replace loss through the menstrual cycle.
Key words: Anemia, lack of iron, population group, insufficient iron intake.
Many women lack the sufficient amount of iron needed for the second and third trimesters. When your body needs more iron than it has available, you can become anemic.Mild anemia is normal during pregnancy due to an increase in blood volume. More severe anemia, however, can put your baby at higher risk for anemia later in infancy. In addition, if you are significantly anemic during your first two trimesters, you are at greater risk for having a pre-term delivery or low-birth-weight baby. Being anemic also burdens the mother by increasing the risk of blood loss during labor and making it more difficult to fight infections.Anemia due to iron deficiency
(Fe++) or sideropenic anemia is the type of anemia during which iron deficiency cannot form enough hemoglobin (Hb) which is essential for the oxygenation of erythrocytes (red blood cells). Anemia during pregnancy is a concern because it is related to the baby’s birth with low body weight, premature birth and mortality of pregnant women. Patients mainly complain of weakness, fatigue, carotid stenosis, lack of concentration, palpitations, mucus and pale skin, easy breathing even during a small physical activity. During pregnancy most often anemia is manifested as a result of iron deficiency. In the United States this is the main cause of anemia during pregnancy. Approximately 15-25% of all pregnancies experience a lack of Fe++, and iron deficiency is also associated with a decrease in Hb levels during pregnancy, which is also caused by a greater extent of plasma volume compared to increased cell volume red. Materials and Methods: The study included 300 pregnant women with mean age 25.00 ± 7.50 years. As a result we examined the concentrations of Erythrocytes (Er), Hemoglobin (Hb), Hema-tocrit, Iron (Fe) and Calcium in the first trimester months.
Outcomes: From the results obtained for the parameters examined for Er, Hb, Htc, Ca, there was a significant difference for p <0.0001, compared to the healthy female control group (N°250). Conclusion: Prevention of anemia during pregnancy should be corrected by means of food suppression. It is recommended that a pregnant woman is required to consume 30 mg of iron every day, folic acid and year. B 12 and calcium. Follow-up of iron supplementation through randomized controlled trials could shed a light on the long-term effects of increasing iron intake during pregnancy on offspring outcomes. Key words: anemia, pregnancy.