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Sheqibe Beadini

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Microbiological Analysis and Antiobiogram Profile in Pharingitis Cases and i‘ts Treatment with Antibiotic

Acute phayngitis is a common infection that is typically managed in the outpatinet setting. While respiratory viruses are responsible for the majority of cases, group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial cause of what is generally reffered to as strep throat. There is much room for improvment in the managment of acute pharyngitis in children and adolescents. Most physicans use appropriate managment strategies, however a substantial number uses inappropriate ones, particularly for children with likelu viral pharyngitis. Efforts to help physicans improve practices will need to be multifaceted and should include health policy and educational approaches.
Infections of throat have a tremendous impact on public health.According to the World Health Organization is noticed that bacterial resistance is growing day by day. Appropriate managment of acute pharyngitis depends on proper use and interpretation of clinical findings, rapid antigen-detection tests and throat cultures.The aim of this study is to see the incidence of sore throat in Tetovo and raising awareness in administration of antibiotic only in patint with positive microbiological analyzes.
Keywords: Acute phayngitis, infection, viruses, bacterial, microbiological analyzes.

Defining patient risk for Transaminitis during Statin therapy

Aim
Studies that evaluate the risk of hepatotoxicity from statins in hyperlipidemic subjects with elevated baseline serum transaminases are lacking, that’s why we conducted a study to test the hypothesis that patients with elevated baseline liver enzymes have higher risk of statin hepatotoxicity.
Introduction
Statin treatment has been associated with a broad spectrum of hepatic adverse effects. The most common is an asymptomatic and usually transient elevation of serum aminotransferase levels that often occurs in the first 12 weeks of therapy. Most of the time, this biochemical finding is not correlated with histopathological changes and therefore does not meet criteria as a true indicator of liver injury. Although the underlying mechanism remains unclear, it may result from changes in the lipid components of the hepatocyte membrane, leading to an increase in its permeability with a subsequent “leakage” of liver enzymes. This is supported by the observation that elevations in aminotransferase levels (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] being a more reliable indicator than aspartate aminotranserase) occur with the use of structurally unrelated statins, as well as with other effective lipid-lowering drugs.Thus, the term transaminitis has been adopted to best define this phenomenon of liver enzyme abnormalities in the absence of proven hepatotoxicity. However, it has been proposed that increases in ALT level of more than 10 times the upper limit of normal should be used to differentiate true hepatotoxicity from transaminitis.
Material And Methods
Our study consisted of the following 3 cohorts of patients seen between January 1, 2013 and June 31, 2014: Cohort 1: 70 hyperlipidemic patients with elevated baseline enzymes (AST >40 IU/L or ALT >35 IU/L) who were prescribed a statin; cohort 2: 87 hyperlipidemic patients with normal transaminases who were prescribed a statin; and cohort 3: 114 patients with elevated liver enzymes but who were not prescribed a statin. The effect of statins on liver biochemistries was assessed over a 6-month period after statins were prescribed. Elevations in liver biochemistries during follow-up were categorized into mild-moderate or severe based on predefined criteria.
Results
The incidence of mild-moderate elevations and severe elevations in liver biochemistries in cohort 1 were 4.7% and 0.6%, respectively. Compared with cohort 1, individuals in cohort 2 had lower incidence of mild-moderate elevations (1.9%) but not severe elevations (0.2%). However, between cohorts 1 and 3, there were no differences in the incidence of mild-moderate elevations (4.7% vs. 6.4%) or severe elevations (0.6% vs. 0.4%). Statin discontinuation during the follow-up was similar between cohorts 1 and 2 (11.1% vs. 10.7%)
Conclusions
These data suggest that individuals with elevated baseline liver enzymes do not have higher risk for hepatotoxicity from statins. Management of dyslipidemic patients with high cardiovascular risk and increased liver enzyme levels represents a challenge. In more than one clinical scenario, the physician is confronted with the dilemma of whether to treat with statins, and in every case it is important to weigh the benefits and risks of treatment.

Keywords: hyperlipidemia, satin, hepatotoxicity.

Treatment of Dyslipedemia on the Patients with Cardiovascular Disease, Combination with Nicotinic Acid And Fibrates Therapy

Dysiplidemia remains an important source of risk for cardiovascular disorders .Moreover, patients with other disorders as diabetes type 2 , metabolic syndrome or obesity , often they show a dyslipidemic characteristic phenotype involving low levels of HDL cholesterol and increased LDL-cholesterol. Low level of HDL-cholesterol (< 1.02 mmol / L) in man or ( < 1.29 mmol/ L ) in womens occurs in 1/3 of patients in Europe with dislipedemia and is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disorder. This study aims to analyze the effect of treatment with nicotinic acid, which is known as an effective tool that increases the level of free HDL cholesterol and also a reducing prominent cardiovascular disorders. Also an overview of addition of fenofibrate to statin therapy, as a successful strategy for managing the different nature of dislipedemia or patients with risk for cardiovascular disorders. Keywords: dyslipidemia , cardiovascular disorders, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol fenofibrate, statin therapy.

Induction of Hepatotoxicity in Japanese Partridge Embryo (Coturnix Japonica) by applying Melatonin Pesticide

In this paper are presented the results of histological analysis of liver analyzed fragments of Japanese juvenile partridges, intoxicated with the Melatonin sub lethal dose (0.1ml), on the fifth day, tenth and fifteenth of their embryonic development. There are also presented the results of permanent registration of oscillation of temperature and humidity inside the incubator space, and the results of a permanent change of the parameters of eggs (egg weight, redness weight of eggs and embryo’s weight). By optical microscopy analysis of fragments of liver of the experimental group, compared with liver fragments from the control group, it was concluded that the application of sub lethal concentrations of Melatonin to parenchyma of this body, has caused necrosis and vacuolization of hepathocytes, erythrocyte hemolysis, coagulation, hemorrhage, sinusoidal expansion, vacuolization of epithelial cells of bile ducts and leukocyte infiltration.

Key words: organophosphorus pesticides, Melatonin, Japanese partridge, histological changes.