Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic and anthropometric anomalies that directly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic syndrome has become a worldwide health problem due to the pandemic size it has taken. According to doctors, this syndrome is quite problematic because it causes a risk for cardiovascular disease and for type 2 diabetes.
Leptin is mainly secreted by the adipose tissue, and other tissues such as the placenta, the brain, the ovaries, the liver, and the skeletal muscles. Leptin plays an important role in fetal growth and in metabolism, thermogenesis, regulates the onset of puberty, hematopoiesis, osteogenesis and reproductive function.
High levels of leptin and insulin during critical periods of development that in the fetal period lead to hyperphagia, obesity and hyperinsulinemia.The serum leptin values are usually proportional to the amount of adipose tissue, therefore most obese people are considered to be leptin-resistant rather than having leptin deficiency. Plasma leptin values increase with increasing fat mass and descend rapidly in the urine. Leptin stimulates physical activity, heat and energy production. As a pro-inflammatory cytokine affects the regulation of hematopoiesis and lympopoiesis.
Key words: metabolic syndrome, Leptin, Interleukine, lipid status.
Plastic is a low cost, lightweight and durable material with a wide range of uses. As a consequence of its great use, plastic production has increased considerably over the last 60 years. Its current use and storage levels cause environmental problems. Much of the plastic produced each year is used to create packaging for different items or other short-term use products that are dropped within a year of production. However, current use of plastics is not sustainable. Because of the durability of polymers, considerable amounts of plastic are accumulated as waste at landfills and natural habitats.
Recycling is currently one of the most important actions that reduces these negative impacts and has found great application in the plastics industry.
Innovative ideas are of great importance in this regard as they enable us through creative thinking to find methods for recycling plastics for reducing environmental impact and resource depletion.
This paper presents an innovative idea realized by personal creative thinking, which resulted in the creation of an incubator from baby bottle sterilizer and which will serve for the development of poultry embryos under in vitro conditions.
For the creation of this equipment, material is mainly made of plastics and rubber, materials which in nature cannot be broken down by microorganisms.
The importance of this innovative idea lies in the fact that the removal of such non-biodegradable material in nature has been avoided by utilizing it for the creation of equipment that will serve us to carry out studies in the field of poultry embryology.
Key words: plastic, recycling, waste, environment, innovative ideas, incubator.
More than 70 million couples suffer from infertility worldwide. One of the major causes of the decline in semen quality appears to be the elevated level of oxidative stress. Asthenozoospermia causes infertility because when sperm do not have progressive motility, they are unable to reach the egg and fertilize it. In recent years, the use of antioxidants in treatment of infertile men has been suggested, although there is limited evidence about the influence of nutrition on quality of semen. In this cohort study we aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, selenium, L-Arginine, L-Carnitine, LMethionine and L-Phenylalanine on a male previously diagnosed with asthenozoospermia.
The man at age of 30, from Skopje, was supplemented twice daily with a tablet consisted of: Vitamin C (100 mg), Vitamin E (67 mg), Zinc (15 mg), Selenium (200 ug), L-Arginine (250 mg), L-Carnitine (50 mg), L-Methionine (50 mg) and LPhenylalanine (50 mg). Supplementation was done in a period of twelve weeks, from April to July 2017. Semen analysis with microscope phase-contrast was done in andrology laboratory in the policlinic “Bukutest”, with 3 days of abstinence, before and after treatment.
Before starting with the therapy, motility of spermatozoa was 35%, and according to referent values of this laboratory which uses WHO criteria of year 1999, classifies this man as asthenozoospermic. Second semen analysis was done twelve weeks after, and showed significant improvement of motility to 50% which meets the criteria of the WHO and considers the man as normozoospermic.
We assume that vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, selenium, L-Arginine, L-Carnitine, L-Methionine and L-Phenylalanine intake could improve the motility of spermatozoa in men with asthenzoospermia and increases chances for fertilizing the egg.
Key words: Male infertility, Antioxidants, Semen quality, Asthenozoospermia.
This paper presents the final data of a four month work (May, June, July, August 2017) on the “Taxonomic Evaluation of Ropalocerofauna in the Suburbs of Kalish Village, Sharr Mountain”. This work coincides with the adult stage of ropalocera. Considering the large gradient of the altitude from the Polog plateau (380m) to the highest peaks, Sharr Mountain (2748m) is represented by almost all vegetative generations. This study for this region is undertaken for the first time by us, which has been overlooked by other local and foreign scholars or has been carried out sporadically. The study is centered on a narrower territory that is very rich in species. Two base stations, one under the village of Kalisht, the other over it, with a distance of 520m to 887m have been described. The collection of the scientific material was made with entomological airspace (Ketscher method) and stored up to the entomological envelopes and mattresses, accompanied by landfill data, date, biotope, collector name, and plant cover notes. During this study, a wealth of material has been picked up by about 400 men and women of ropalocerals. Part of it has been set up for the establishment of a scientific fund at the Biology Research Program of the University of Tetova. From the faunistic analysis so far, it results that we have determined from this material 76 species, included in 44 genres within 5 families. Compared with European (482 species), (Eu-441lloje) known so far, and Macedonian (201 species), that of the Sharri Massif (176 species), this narrow area is visited by 76 species or calculated in% 15.7% at European level, respectively 36.5%, compared to the Sharr Massif and this proves for a generous abundant fortune of ropalocerofauna.
Key words: Ropalocerofauna, species composition, distribution, village Kalisht, Sharr mountain, Macedonia.
Anemia in chronic renal failure is predominantly caused by diminished erythropoietin synthesis by diseased kidneys. While iron deficiency is often stated as a cause of anemia in chronic renal failure prior to end-stage renal disease, its relative contribution is debated. It is speculated that rather than frank ‘iron deficiency’, many patients with chronic renal failure may indeed have impaired utilization of iron. We analyzed 150 consecutive patients with chronic renal failure starting maintenance hemodialysis to determine the relationship between hematocrit, measures of renal function (blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine concentration), and measures of iron availability (serum transferrin saturation, serum iron level and serum ferritin).From them 60 % were males and 405 females. We conclude that in patients with chronic renal failure starting uremia therapy, anemia does not correlate with any of the commonly measured indices of body iron stores. We infer that impaired utilization of iron may be a significant factor in the anemia of chronic renal failure.
Key words: anemia, chronic kidney disease, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, iron, ferritin, urea and creatinine
Acute phayngitis is a common infection that is typically managed in the outpatinet setting. While respiratory viruses are responsible for the majority of cases, group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial cause of what is generally reffered to as strep throat. There is much room for improvment in the managment of acute pharyngitis in children and adolescents. Most physicans use appropriate managment strategies, however a substantial number uses inappropriate ones, particularly for children with likelu viral pharyngitis. Efforts to help physicans improve practices will need to be multifaceted and should include health policy and educational approaches.
Infections of throat have a tremendous impact on public health.According to the World Health Organization is noticed that bacterial resistance is growing day by day. Appropriate managment of acute pharyngitis depends on proper use and interpretation of clinical findings, rapid antigen-detection tests and throat cultures.The aim of this study is to see the incidence of sore throat in Tetovo and raising awareness in administration of antibiotic only in patint with positive microbiological analyzes.
Keywords: Acute phayngitis, infection, viruses, bacterial, microbiological analyzes.
Studies that evaluate the risk of hepatotoxicity from statins in hyperlipidemic subjects with elevated baseline serum transaminases are lacking, that’s why we conducted a study to test the hypothesis that patients with elevated baseline liver enzymes have higher risk of statin hepatotoxicity.
Statin treatment has been associated with a broad spectrum of hepatic adverse effects. The most common is an asymptomatic and usually transient elevation of serum aminotransferase levels that often occurs in the first 12 weeks of therapy. Most of the time, this biochemical finding is not correlated with histopathological changes and therefore does not meet criteria as a true indicator of liver injury. Although the underlying mechanism remains unclear, it may result from changes in the lipid components of the hepatocyte membrane, leading to an increase in its permeability with a subsequent “leakage” of liver enzymes. This is supported by the observation that elevations in aminotransferase levels (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] being a more reliable indicator than aspartate aminotranserase) occur with the use of structurally unrelated statins, as well as with other effective lipid-lowering drugs.Thus, the term transaminitis has been adopted to best define this phenomenon of liver enzyme abnormalities in the absence of proven hepatotoxicity. However, it has been proposed that increases in ALT level of more than 10 times the upper limit of normal should be used to differentiate true hepatotoxicity from transaminitis.
Material And Methods
Our study consisted of the following 3 cohorts of patients seen between January 1, 2013 and June 31, 2014: Cohort 1: 70 hyperlipidemic patients with elevated baseline enzymes (AST >40 IU/L or ALT >35 IU/L) who were prescribed a statin; cohort 2: 87 hyperlipidemic patients with normal transaminases who were prescribed a statin; and cohort 3: 114 patients with elevated liver enzymes but who were not prescribed a statin. The effect of statins on liver biochemistries was assessed over a 6-month period after statins were prescribed. Elevations in liver biochemistries during follow-up were categorized into mild-moderate or severe based on predefined criteria.
The incidence of mild-moderate elevations and severe elevations in liver biochemistries in cohort 1 were 4.7% and 0.6%, respectively. Compared with cohort 1, individuals in cohort 2 had lower incidence of mild-moderate elevations (1.9%) but not severe elevations (0.2%). However, between cohorts 1 and 3, there were no differences in the incidence of mild-moderate elevations (4.7% vs. 6.4%) or severe elevations (0.6% vs. 0.4%). Statin discontinuation during the follow-up was similar between cohorts 1 and 2 (11.1% vs. 10.7%)
These data suggest that individuals with elevated baseline liver enzymes do not have higher risk for hepatotoxicity from statins. Management of dyslipidemic patients with high cardiovascular risk and increased liver enzyme levels represents a challenge. In more than one clinical scenario, the physician is confronted with the dilemma of whether to treat with statins, and in every case it is important to weigh the benefits and risks of treatment.
Keywords: hyperlipidemia, satin, hepatotoxicity.
Dysiplidemia remains an important source of risk for cardiovascular disorders .Moreover, patients with other disorders as diabetes type 2 , metabolic syndrome or obesity , often they show a dyslipidemic characteristic phenotype involving low levels of HDL cholesterol and increased LDL-cholesterol. Low level of HDL-cholesterol (< 1.02 mmol / L) in man or ( < 1.29 mmol/ L ) in womens occurs in 1/3 of patients in Europe with dislipedemia and is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disorder. This study aims to analyze the effect of treatment with nicotinic acid, which is known as an effective tool that increases the level of free HDL cholesterol and also a reducing prominent cardiovascular disorders. Also an overview of addition of fenofibrate to statin therapy, as a successful strategy for managing the different nature of dislipedemia or patients with risk for cardiovascular disorders. Keywords: dyslipidemia , cardiovascular disorders, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol fenofibrate, statin therapy.