Interdiction: The purpose of this paper is that through regular follow up, survey, for four years, on period from 2014 until 2017, of main ten, health indicator in Kosovo prisons, to present the pathway of those diseases. Based on the results of the survey, to compare, analyze and address the topics for taking adequate measures to maintain and advance the qualitative treatment.
Material and Methods: Are based on data processing followed by regular protocols for 4 years in prisons in Kosovo. The data are verified, compared and presented as they appear during above mentioned period. The compare of data are performed during the years with number of inmates admitted, using the personal medical files and periodic official reports on those indicators.
Results and discussions: During the period for 4 years (2014 – 2017) the ten main health indicators at Kosovo prisons ha, mostly the linear pathway, except psychotic syndrome that had a rapid decrease end than again linear light increase and infective diseases that had the rapid decreases all the time.
The four indicators as respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurotic and locomotory, are at the high percentage, more than 50% of overall inmates circulated at all those four supervised years.
Conclusions and recommendations: The continuing of the follow up of the main health indicators in Kosovo Prison Health Service is an imperative. To maintain under control those health indicators is very important. The Neurotic syndrome and urogenital disorders are increasing and need to take more care about them. Other
indicators at the moment are in linear decrease, but need to be observed and regular maintain to decrease cases and percentage of the diseases.
The general hygienic conditions and food has to be followed and to be find the case of those four indictors with more the 50% values of the cases for the purpose of improving them as much as possible in function of quality of health care in the prisons.
Keywords: pathway, health, indicators, cases, percentage, increase, decrease, observes, reduce, etc.
Interdiction: The purpose of this paper is that through regular follow up, survey, for four years, on period from 2014 until 2017, of main ten, health indicator in Kosovo prisons, to present the pathway of those diseases. Based on the results of the survey, to compare, analyze and address the topics for taking adequate measures to maintain and advance the qualitative treatment.
Plastic is a low cost, lightweight and durable material with a wide range of uses. As a consequence of its great use, plastic production has increased considerably over the last 60 years. Its current use and storage levels cause environmental problems. Much of the plastic produced each year is used to create packaging for different items or other short-term use products that are dropped within a year of production. However, current use of plastics is not sustainable. Because of the durability of polymers, considerable amounts of plastic are accumulated as waste at landfills and natural habitats.
Recycling is currently one of the most important actions that reduces these negative impacts and has found great application in the plastics industry.
Innovative ideas are of great importance in this regard as they enable us through creative thinking to find methods for recycling plastics for reducing environmental impact and resource depletion.
This paper presents an innovative idea realized by personal creative thinking, which resulted in the creation of an incubator from baby bottle sterilizer and which will serve for the development of poultry embryos under in vitro conditions.
For the creation of this equipment, material is mainly made of plastics and rubber, materials which in nature cannot be broken down by microorganisms.
The importance of this innovative idea lies in the fact that the removal of such non-biodegradable material in nature has been avoided by utilizing it for the creation of equipment that will serve us to carry out studies in the field of poultry embryology.
Key words: plastic, recycling, waste, environment, innovative ideas, incubator.
In Macedonia wild harvesting of medicinal plants from natural habitats remains very popular tradition and practice. There is concern due to the great amount of biomass collected every year; especially regarding plants classified as vulnerable and some classified as threatened. Therefore, is of extraordinary importance to understund how functional it is supplay chain of commercially traded species related to conservation.
Material and Methods
Field work was conducted between June 2004 and July 2016. Information was gathered in 40 local markets from 80 selected selers of medicinal plants all over 60 years by using quantitative market research i.e in-depth interviews.
Results and discussions
A total of 128 medicinal plants belonging to 41 families were recorded. Of them the following species were observed to be in high demand: Achillea millefolium L., Hypericum perforatum L, Mentha piperita L., Sambucus nigra L., Sideritis scardica Griseb., Thymus serpyllum L., and Urtica dioica.
Conclusions and recomendations
Commercial trade plays a significant threat to medicinal plant species.In line with this in Macedonia has made little effort. Therefore, we strongly recomend that the designed list of prioritized species for conservation form this research, to be used by the authoritiesincluded in this issue.
Keywords: Conservation – Medicinal plants – Macedonia.
The water samples were carried out over a certain period of time on the basis of which the water quality in the physico-chemical and bacteriological aspects was tested. Based on these analyzes, the possibility of using water for drinking in water resources was tested, so this work is divided into two parts, the theoretical part and the practical part.
In the first part, general theoretical knowledge of water is provided, while in the second part are given the general analysis of drinking water in the villages of Prizren municipality where samples were taken, in hilly and mountainous settlements where residents use water wells, Prizren’s drinking water, and the values gained during
the analysis of the Sharr mountain thermal waters. The standard methods of analysis are used for these researches, and it is worth mentioning that the base work has a structure that speaks about all the results achieved and the deficiencies of these waters that are found in these countries that people use for their needs.
When it comes to the pollution of the environment, here is certainly the contamination of drinking water which is a very serious problem that preoccupies and disturbs the population, this is due to negligence of people or in different settlements with urban and municipal wastewater or even industrial ones.
Keywords: drinking water, water samples, environmental pollution, surface urine.
This is the first paper of systematic research on macromycetes in the area of Chelojca Mountain massif. In this article, a list of tericolous and lignicolous macromycetes (Basidiomycota and Ascomycota) recorded on oak forest (Quercetum frainettocerris macedonicum) and fagus forest (Calamintha grandiflorae-Fagetum macedonicum on Chelojca mountain massif is given. The material was collected in spring, summer and autumn of 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2017 years in a variety of substrates. The found typesare recorded in some localities such as nearSerbicavill.,Novoselevill., in different altitude (900-1650 masl). Of total 60 fungi provided in this paper, one specie belongs to the phylum Ascomycota and 58 to Basidiomycota. Also, 42 species are tericolous, and 18 are lignicolous. The most numerous orders are: Agaricales (25), Russulales (11), Boletales (10) etc. From the genus dominate: Amanita (7), Boletus (6), Lactarius (5) and Russula (4) species.
The main part of the species (31) are saprobes, 24 are mycorrhisal and 5 are parasites. Some of the species such as: Amanita crocea, Lactarius serifluus, Entoloma chalybeum, Panaeolus semiovatus, Peziza vesiculosa and Sphaerobolus stellatus could be highlighted as rare. Some of the most frequent species are: Amanita rubescens, Armillaria mellea, Gymnopus dryophilus, Marasmius oreades, Russula cyanoxantha, Stereum hirsutum etc. Аs economically significant fungi can be mentioned: Boletus edulis, B. aestivalis, Cantharellus cibarius, Amanita caesarea, Pleurotus ostreatus, etc.
Keywords: fungi, macromycetes, ecology, distribution, Chelojca Mountain, Kichevo.
Depressive diseases are part of the worst clinical disease group around the world. They show up in their different forms of presentation up to about 20% of the population. Thinking, feeling, social relationships and almost all life are affected. Despite its great importance, depression is often not recognizes or treated
This cause suffering and loss of quality of life for affected persons and their relatives. In recent years there was a clear view that depression is a chronic illness due to stress and as a result, the term “stress-depression” has also emerged. It is a risk factor for the emergence of other dangerous massive diseases such as heart attack,
apoplexy, osteoporosis and diabetes.
Based on the data from 2000 to 2011, the highest depression countries are Ireland with about 96.8% followed by Australia with 89%, Canada 86%, Denmark with 85%, Sweden with 79%, these data also correlate with degree of use of antidepressant drugs. 
Depression is a serious illness that can be cured. It is not a state of normal boredom it is not a disorder but in the past years is shown some tables that include all the factors and impact of the treatment of depression.
Keywords: Chronic depression, depressive diseases, treatment.
Introduction: Dogs are a reservoir for a very huge number of endo and ectoparasites. These parasites not only affect the dogs health and wellbeing but are important zoonotic agents.
Aim: To know the situation of the most common parasites present in Tetova region and the public health concern from them.
Material and Methods: During 2017 a total of 264 dogs are tested for the presence of endoparasites with the centrifugation-flotation technique and for the presence of ectoparasites by a complete examination of the skin.
Results: In our study we observed that the potential zoonotic genera of parasites found in dogs and their percentage were: Ancylostoma caninum (26,8%), Trichuris vulpis (17,1%), Toxocara canis (8,5%). The most
common ectoparasites found were ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus on 60 dogs (34,2%) followed by Ixodes ricinus in 23 dogs (13,1%). The endoparasite Angiostrongylus vasorum was found only in 1 case.
Conclusion: The present study determines the most common parasites found in dogs of Tetova region, Macedonia. While some dog parasites are highly host-specific, several dog parasites as Ancylostoma caninum
or Toxocara canis are important from the veterinary and human perspective. This article presents the situation of some parasites of the region studied and some important information regarding public health concerns and a better management of some zoonotic parasites.
Keywords: dogs, ecto – endo parasites, zoonosis.
Pain is defined as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage”. Many patients present to the Emergency Department (ED) in pain. In addition, the management of pain constitutes an essential skill of nurses in general and emergency nurses in particular. However, the accurate assessment of pain intensity and relief represents a clinically
challenging undertaking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the most common symptoms that appear in the emergency department, with focus in pain symptom, which require adequate educational preparation and knowledge to deliver safe and quality patient care. This cross sectional observational study was conducted in the emergency department of the Vlore Regional Hospital, Albania during March and June 2016. A standard questionnaire based on the literature was used to assess symptoms of the patient. The administration was made by nursing students while performing their teaching practice in hospital. The numeric 0–10 scale was used for the evaluation of symptoms (0=not at all; 5=moderate; 10=worst possible). A total of 45 patients were the study sample. They were excluded patients in critical condition and those who could not respond to answers. An oral consent was given by each patient after they were informed. Average age of patients was (55.11 ± 17.7) years.
Pain: cut point 6 for the 26.26% (n=12) of patients, while cut point 7 and 8 of pain reported by the same percentage 15.56% (n=7). The pain in head and chest were the most common clinical presentation, respectively
(46.67%) and (40%). Most frequent diagnoses were High blood pressure and Vertiginous Syndrome. A coordinated care intervention with the primary care to reduce emergency department presentations among
chronically ill patients, and knowledge of the most common symptoms of patients by staff nurses, with focus in the management of pain, operating in the emergency care are essential for the improvement of patient health outcomes.
Keywords: pain, emergency department, symptom, wellbeing, nurse, tiredness.
Xerostomia is defined as a condition or feeling of dry mouth resulting in biochemical changes in the amount and composition of the saliva which may present further complications in the oral health.
Hyposalivation is defined as an objective assessment of a reduced rate of salivary flow. Benzodiazepines and antidepressants constitute the most frequently prescribed drugs with anxiolytic activity that can give rise to hyposalivation. Diabetes mellitus, although a metabolic disorder, usually sent with one of the first oral symptoms such as xerostomia.
Taste receptors are permanently exposed in smokers where primary effect is stimulation of saliva from hypersalivation acquired by chronic use of cigarettes to pass in hyposalivation.
This paper reviews the current knowledge of the drugs that cause impairment of the creation and flow of saliva and certain conditions that are shipped with the dryness of the mouth.
More than 70 million couples suffer from infertility worldwide. One of the major causes of the decline in semen quality appears to be the elevated level of oxidative stress. Asthenozoospermia causes infertility because when sperm do not have progressive motility, they are unable to reach the egg and fertilize it. In recent years, the use of antioxidants in treatment of infertile men has been suggested, although there is limited evidence about the influence of nutrition on quality of semen. In this cohort study we aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, selenium, L-Arginine, L-Carnitine, LMethionine and L-Phenylalanine on a male previously diagnosed with asthenozoospermia.
The man at age of 30, from Skopje, was supplemented twice daily with a tablet consisted of: Vitamin C (100 mg), Vitamin E (67 mg), Zinc (15 mg), Selenium (200 ug), L-Arginine (250 mg), L-Carnitine (50 mg), L-Methionine (50 mg) and LPhenylalanine (50 mg). Supplementation was done in a period of twelve weeks, from April to July 2017. Semen analysis with microscope phase-contrast was done in andrology laboratory in the policlinic “Bukutest”, with 3 days of abstinence, before and after treatment.
Before starting with the therapy, motility of spermatozoa was 35%, and according to referent values of this laboratory which uses WHO criteria of year 1999, classifies this man as asthenozoospermic. Second semen analysis was done twelve weeks after, and showed significant improvement of motility to 50% which meets the criteria of the WHO and considers the man as normozoospermic.
We assume that vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, selenium, L-Arginine, L-Carnitine, L-Methionine and L-Phenylalanine intake could improve the motility of spermatozoa in men with asthenzoospermia and increases chances for fertilizing the egg.
Key words: Male infertility, Antioxidants, Semen quality, Asthenozoospermia.
Understanding local traditional botanical knowledge concerning medicinal plants, food plants, plants in material culture and plants related to superstitions is essential to the development of a framework for land use practices and believes in isolated regions, and between different cultural groups. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to advance understanding of traditional uses of plants among three ethnic groups living in the southwestern region of Macedonia: Macedonians, Albanians and Turks. We aimed to record wild plant knowledge in southwestern region Macedonia, compare the data arising from the three considered ethnic groups, and compare this data with the other studies previously conducted in the Balkans.
Field work was conducted between January 2015 and March 2016. Information was gathered in 44 localities from 87 selected residents over 60 years using different techniques: face-to-face in depth interviews with knowledgeable elders’ with empirical knowledge; focus group discussions with farmers; face-to-face interviews with protected-areas managers; semistructured interviews with local healers and face-toface in depth interviews with local medicinal plant vendors.
A total of 109 plants species belonging to 86 different families were recorded. Rosaceae and Lamiaceae were the largest families. The study reveals that a total of 560 use(s) are being used in traditional medicinal or food practices as well in other cultural contexts of material culture and superstitions. The most popular ethnomedicinally reported plant species were used as decoctions for treating diseases related to the respiratory and digestive systems. Given the paucity of knowledge about Buglossoides purpurocaerulea (L.) I.M.Johnst., reported by locals to be very effective in urinary system treatment (kidney stones), we recommend phytochemical analysis to prove that there is scientific evidence in the treatment of above mentioned diseases. Documented data was evaluated using evaluative measures of Fidelity Level (FL), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC).
This study shows that elderly residents of southwestern region Macedonia are comprehensive repositories of traditional botanical knowledge. The present study will be beneficial to understund importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation, understand diet and its origins and evolution.
Keywords: Ethnobotany – Biocultural diversity – Medicinal plants – Food culture – Material Culture – Macedonia.
Transfusion transmissible infections (TTI) testing is one of the cornerstones of blood safety. Accurate estimation of the prevalence of TTI markers is essential for monitoring of the donor selection/deferral process as well as for the epidemiological situation in the country.
Aim of the study: the aim of this study is to evaluate the seroprevalence of mandatory tested TTI markers (HBV, HCV, HIV and Syphilis) in blood donors and to estimate the demographic characteristics of blood donors with positive TTI markers in the period of 10 years, from 2007 to 2016.
Material and methods: Blood samples were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV antibodies, anti-HIV (p24 antigen and HIV-1/2 antibodies) and Syphilis (anti-TP) using serological assays (EIA – Enzygnost, Siemens and CMIA – Architect system, Abbott). Repeatedly reactive samples were retested with confirmatory assays: Vidas HBsAg Ultra, Immunoblot Deciscan HCV Plus and RecomLine HCV.Demographic data (sex, age, number of donations andethnicity) of243 donors with positive TTI markers were evaluated using the donor software.
Results: From the total of 269.355 blood units tested, 876 were positive for TTI with the prevalence rate of 0,32%. The number of repeatedly reactive (RR) and confirmed positive (CP) samples was as follows: 831 (0,31%) were HBV RR and 750 (0,28%) were HBV CP; 416 (0,17%) were HCV RR and 122 (0,04%) were HCV CP; 245 (0,10%) were HIV RR and 4 (0,001%) were HIV CP. There were no CP samples for Syphilis in
the analyzed period.The number of confirmatory positive (CP), confirmatory negative (CN) and confirmatory indeterminate (CI) results from the total of 243 HBV and HCV RR donorsin the period from 2013 to 2014 was 149 (61.3%), 84 (34.6%) and 10 (4.1%) respectively. The demographic characteristics of this 243 donors were the fallowing: 103 (69%) first time donors, 128 (86%) male vs. 21 (14%) female, mean age of 34.4 years, mean number of 1.3 donations/donor, 107 (72%) were with Macedonian and 42 (28%) were with Albanian origin.
Conclusion: Blood donation in our country is voluntary, non-remunerated, on regular basis and there are practically no family/replacement donors. Donor selection and deferral criteria are permanently revised. Blood screening and confirmatory testing for TTI is performed according to the standard operating procedures and algorithms which enable deferral and counselling of donors with positive TTI markers. All of this contributes to the low prevalence of TTI markers in our blood donor population as a fundamental to blood safety.
Key words: blood donors, blood safety, transfusion transmitted infections, TTI testing.
Introduction. The term “risk factors” describes the traits of healthy people connected independently with the recurrent cardiovascular disease morbidity. It includes the lifestyle, biochemical and physiological modified traits, and also the personal unmodified traits such as: age, gender, and family history in the recurrent of cardiovascular disease in younger age (male <55 years of age, female <65 years of age).
In general, the concept of risk factors is a great priority in the improvement of the prevention strategy of the coronary diseases.
Aim. To evaluate the predictive ability of risk factors of cardiovascular disease in long-term prognosis of the patients with recurrent myocardial infarct during 3 years period of the patients after a new event of myocardial infarct in the Elbasan region.
Methodology. It is a 3-year cohort, for a period from 2009-2012 to evaluate the prognostic abilities of the clinical traits in the patients where they were hospitalized in undesired long-term results such as the new recurrent infarct. To see the effect of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the recurrent or not in another episode of AMI, we used the analysis curve of survival Kaplan Meier. A rate of p<0.05 is considered significant for the statistics.
Results. At the end of the study 16 patients out of 65 had an interest events (death/recurrent infarct) that is significantly lower its non-occurrence (p 0.05). Changes in the survival rate of individuals according to the normal or high levels of cholesterol, presence or not of the diabetes has statistic changes (Log Rank p<0.05).
Conclusions. Knowledge of the risk factors that are also a prognosis factor in the patient performance with AMI helps in defining patients that need to undergo a more specific check up to avoid these undesired results. This is due to the fact that patients who have been smokers, have diabetes, hypercholesterolemia history are at a higher risk to have a reserved prognosis of the disease (recurrence of myocardial infarct or death).
Keywords: risk factors, acute myocardial infarction, the long-term prognosis, survival.
Results: Despite the tremendous efforts made by international governments and organizations to prevent HIV, HBV and HCV (1, 2) 2015 infections, evidence suggests that transmitting infections continue to spread, taking millions of lives in developing countries ( 3, 7).
Introduction Avoiding professional blood exposure is a primary way to prevent the transmission of HBV, HCV, and HIV into health settings PURPOSE OF PUNISHMENT The importance of the study and the new knowledge that will be gained from it. Through this study it is possible to identify the problems that arise after accidents at work in health personnel, considering that through exposure to different biological fluids it is also possible to transmit the serious HIV, HBV and HCV infectious diseases.
Material And Method. In this study were attended by 220 students and professionals of whom 36 Men – M (16%) and 184 Female – F (84%). This study brings new evidence of the risk of infection by the blood, other body fluids, and the knowledge of the workers’ sudents and health workers about post-exposure measures. In this survey are included 3 Annex A – demographic data, B – general knowledge and C – specific data.
Results. The average age of respondents is the new 51% 23 – 25 years old and 33% 36 – 52 year old with a difference of. of 1.52. Statistical processing reflects that, most 45% of respondents think that breast milk is the body fluid that has the highest propensity for transmitting HBV, HCV and HIV. Despite the small difference between those who are often injured at work 42% and those who are seldom at work 39%, there is a high percentage of the group of injured at work compared to those who have never been harmed, increasing the risk virus transmission. In this case, the injury results in a large difference between the injured with age (26%) compared to the injury with other work injury injuries (74%) and the damage was 91% (41%) compared to the PSH damaged in depth 6 (3%). What was seen as high risk and resulted in a high percentage of individuals who do not report the type of contamination, 112 ( 51% ) were compared to individuals who were contaminated with blood contents at No. 54 (25% ) and other biological fluids to a lesser extent. Positive was at a higher percentage
of 49% of individuals reporting that the crushing and disinfection are the first two actions that are being practiced in the event of contamination and the next step was to consult with the infectious. at a higher 48% than in other reporting links. Also, individuals who think that PEPs should be urgently had a higher 49% than individuals reporting at different PEP times. But what matters and increases the risk is the lack of information in the survey.
Conclusions: This study highlights the continuing need to reduce negative attitudes to HIV, HBV and HCV, and to provide the necessary health education between PSHs, particularly focusing on HBV and HCV prevention. Research project findings can be used to develop awareness-raising interventions to report cases of contact with the carrier fluids of these viruses.
Key words: Student, Knowledge Difference, post-exposure prophylaxis, HBV, HCV and HIV.
A high proportion of maternal mortality in developing countries is caused by abortion, especially in such countries with limited abortion laws. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of abortion and related factors of abortions in Tetovo population during period of 2012 – 2017 years. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Tetovo province. Data were collected from Clinical Hospitals of Tetovo in Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All abortions from 2012 to June 2017 considered as the source population. The risk factors including maternal age, parity, abortion, pregnancy risk factors, maternal nationality, maternity insurance, preterm labor, place of birth, type were compared between normal birth and abortion groups. The data for the research came from 3198 randomly selected pregnant female using structured and questionnaires, data were collected during the period from 201 to June 2017. The results showed that the prevalence of abortion in this study was hight, and there was statistically significant relationship between abortion and maternal age, the higher level of education, socio-economic levels (excluding middle level), the age of marriage, the number of live children. There was no significant relationship between abortion and residence, occupation and type of marriage. Also artificial abortions and missed abortions are in higher rates of induced labour, compare to incomplete, spontaneous abortions and blighted ovum.
Keywords: abortions , prevalence, risk factor.
This paper presents the final data of a four month work (May, June, July, August 2017) on the “Taxonomic Evaluation of Ropalocerofauna in the Suburbs of Kalish Village, Sharr Mountain”. This work coincides with the adult stage of ropalocera. Considering the large gradient of the altitude from the Polog plateau (380m) to the highest peaks, Sharr Mountain (2748m) is represented by almost all vegetative generations. This study for this region is undertaken for the first time by us, which has been overlooked by other local and foreign scholars or has been carried out sporadically. The study is centered on a narrower territory that is very rich in species. Two base stations, one under the village of Kalisht, the other over it, with a distance of 520m to 887m have been described. The collection of the scientific material was made with entomological airspace (Ketscher method) and stored up to the entomological envelopes and mattresses, accompanied by landfill data, date, biotope, collector name, and plant cover notes. During this study, a wealth of material has been picked up by about 400 men and women of ropalocerals. Part of it has been set up for the establishment of a scientific fund at the Biology Research Program of the University of Tetova. From the faunistic analysis so far, it results that we have determined from this material 76 species, included in 44 genres within 5 families. Compared with European (482 species), (Eu-441lloje) known so far, and Macedonian (201 species), that of the Sharri Massif (176 species), this narrow area is visited by 76 species or calculated in% 15.7% at European level, respectively 36.5%, compared to the Sharr Massif and this proves for a generous abundant fortune of ropalocerofauna.
Key words: Ropalocerofauna, species composition, distribution, village Kalisht, Sharr mountain, Macedonia.
Introduction: Presently, there are several scales used for measuring the risk and valuing the outcome in patients with upper GI bleeding. The most frequently used and validated in the clinical practice is the Rocall and Blatchford scale.
Aim: To assess the significance of the GBS /Glasgow-Blatchford scale/ for predicting the clinical outcome and need of therapeutic intervention in patients with acute upper non-variceal GI bleeding /AUNGB/.
Materials and methods:A retrospective monocentric study of 100 patients admitted to our department for AUNGB in 2013 was used. GBS was retrospectively calculated based on the original Blatchford scale. The medical files of all patients were used for creating the study extract. The validity of our study was calculated
using and comparing with the Oliver Blatchford’s study. We created our risk scale basing on the data from the patients files and the clinical examinations – hemoglobin levels, BUN, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, presence of syncope, melena, liver disease or heart failure during the admission.
Results: In our study we observed 100 patients with AUNGB – 62 males (62 %) and 38 females (38 %). The average age of the population was 63.2 years and the average hospital stay was 4.8 days. Upper endoscopy was performed in all 100 patients. Five (5 %) of the patients needed endoscopic hemostasis, one (1%) underwent surgical operation and 43 (43 %) needed blood transfusion. Ten (10 %) of the patients died. Patients with 3 or less GBS scale points didn’t need any therapeutic intervention.
Conclusion: GBS scale can be clinically used for predicting the need for therapeutic intervention in patients with acute upper non-variceal GI bleeding.
Keywords: acute non-variceal gastro-intestinal bleeding, Glasgow-Blatchford Scale.
Background: Obesity is a well-established risk factor for endometrial cancer.
Aim: The current study is to investigate the relationships of the serum concentration of adiponectin and body mass index with the endometrial cancer in postmenopausal female subjects.
Study Design: Case-control study
Metods: We conducted a case-control study of a total of 210 Bulgarian women to detect the relationships between serum concentrations of adiponectin and body mass index (BMI) in postmenopausal women with endometrial cancer. The study subject constituted 90 cases of endometrial cancer and 120 controls.
Results: Mean serum concentration of adiponectin in endometrial cancer was 2.79 ng/ml as opposed to 7.15 ng/ml in patients without endometrial pathology (p<0.0001). Significantly, low concentrations of adiponectin and higher BMI were noted in the group of patients with endometrial cancer in comparison to controls
(p<0.0001). The regression models establish corelation between serum adiponectin level, BMI and cases with endometrial cancer.
Concluson: The low serum level of adiponectin ratio is independently associated with higher BMI and increased risk for endometrial cancer. Serum adiponectin plays important roles in the development of obesityrelated endometrial cancer and can be used as a predictive marker.
Key words: Obesity, Endometrial cancer, Adiponectin.
Background: Pre-eclampsia is a multisystem disorder of complex origin and prevention of it is not yet possible. Calcium excretion abnormalities have been studied in relation to several factors. However, the role of calcium in pregnant women is still being discussed.
Aims: The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of calciuria levels in mild pre-eclamptic pregnancies compared to normotensive pregnancies in the third trimester (32-35g.w.).
Study Design: Case-control study.
Methods: A study includes 50 primigravida women aged between 20-30 years. The patients were allocated to one of two groups: patients – women with mild pre-eclampsia (n=25) and controls – normotensive women (n=25). The women were asked to come with 24 h urine from 6 a.m. to next day 6 a.m. in a container. Calcium level of urine sample was analysed by the colorimetric method using the semi analyser and was estimated by the OCPC method at 575 nm. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Graph Pad Prism version 7.00 for Mac. Continuous variables were expressed as means; a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Pre-eclamptic women excreted significantly less total urine calcium (2.20 ± 0.28 mmol/24 h) than normotensive women (9.72 ± 2.88 mmol/24 h) (p < 0.0001) between 32-35 weeks of gestation. Conclusion: A decrease in 24-hour urinary total calcium between 32-25 weeks' gestation are risk factors for preeclampsia.. This parameter would predict preeclampsia in pregnancy. Keywords: Preeclampsia, Calcium, Hypocalciuria, Pregnancy.
Cholangiocarcinomas are rare neoplasm of biliary tree with a poor prognosis. These tumors are rarely diagnosed in patients younger than 40 years and at the time of diagnosis are usually complicated with obstructive jaundice.
Aim of the study: the aim of these study was to show our experience in the treatment of patients with extrahepatic carcinoma of the bile ducts.
Material and methods: this retrospective study was performed in General Surgery Department of Clinical Hospital of Tetove during a period fom January 2014 until January 2017. Totally six patients aged between 57 and 74 years were subject of this study. Diagnosis was established by ultrasonography, Computed Tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
Results: in three patients cholangiocarcinoma was localized in gallbladder, and in three others in common biliary duct (CBD). Radical resection of gallbladder and regional lymphonodectomy was performed in all three patients with gallbladder cholangiocarcionma. One of three patients with cholangiocarcinoma of common bile duct underwent a biliodigestive bypass, one endoscopic palliative therapy with implantation of stent, while the third because of spread and dissemination of the tumors was inoperable.
Conclusion: Cholangiocarcinoma of gallbladder and common biliary duct is a relatively rare malignancy. Early diagnosis of this tumors remains a real challenge and has great impact in the survival rate of patients.
Bronchial Smooth muscle cell is important in Asthma and Bronchial Hyper Reactivity not only for their role in excessive bronchoconstriction, but also for their active participation in inflammation and airway remodeling. Muscle cells are activated from the products of inflammation, but in the other side produce by themselves pro inflammatory mediators. The physiopathology of bronchial smooth muscle cell is important also for the phenotypes of Asthma and the treatment according to the respective phenotype. New techniques like bronchial thermoplastic and new discoveries of drugs are performed or expected to be in the future. Their exact intervention into the correction of the molecular level of muscle dysfunction, like MLCK enzyme higher quantity and higher speed of phosphorylation, or other diverse muscle mediators involved in inflammation or airway remodeling are presented in this review.
Summary: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a major constituent of plasma lipoproteins with many biological actions of great significance. Beyond the known influence of ApoE polymorphisms on serum lipid profile, the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and the development of neurodegenerative disorders, ApoE also has a major role in the pathogenesis and progression of a variety of renal diseases, as well as in the atherosclerotic complications associated with them. Briefly, the polymorphisms of ApoE are major determinants of plasma lipid levels in uremic patients. They may affect the risk for cardiovascular disease in this population, predispose to the development of diabetic nephropathy, influence the severity of certain glomerulopathies, and regulate mesangial and glomerular functions locally in the kidney microenvironment. Finally, certain mutations of the ApoE gene are associated with a recently described nephropathy, termed lipoprotein glomerulopathy.The metabolism disorders of apolyproteins, recently are considered as one of the most relevant factors in the appearance of atherosclerotic, cardiovascular and cerebral-vascular diseases at the patients with renal chronic insufficiency (RCI) and those treated with chronic hemodialysis (HD) (1,2). The appearance of the dyslipidemia is noticeable since the early stages of the weakening of kidneys, therefore the examination and etio-pathogenesis
of the apolyproteins, in this concrete case the Apolyprotein – E at these patients, can evidently impact on the prevention of the early cardio–cerebral- vascular and atherosclerosis diseases at the patients with renal chronic terminal insufficiency (RCTI) treated with continual hemodialysis. The apolyprotein – E is a major component of the plasma apoprotein with a large number of biologic actions with a great relevance in the metabolism of lipoproteins. Aside from the known impact of the polymorphism at the apolyprotein-E in the profile of lipids in the premature pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and the development of neurodegenerative disorders, apo-E, also plays a great role in the ethio-pathogenesis and the acceleration of the renal chronic insufficiency. A large number of studies have verified that the polymorphism of apo-E is and is considered as the main indicator of the levels of plasma lipids at the patients with ESRD treated with HD. Besides that they can influence in the fast progress of the RCI, the development of diabetic nephropathy, the risk from cardiovascular diseases, also influence the degree of the glomerulopathy, and the mesangial and glomerular functions in a local microcells level of the kidneys at the uremic patients. Purpose of the paper:The aim of this research it is to determine the
Apolipoprotein-E concentrations and its effects as well as the impact of Apo-E in the appearance of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and early artiosclerosis diseases at patients with ESRD treated with repeated hemodialisis. As examination material was used the blood taken from the vein of 1 patients treated with hemodialysis and of the controlling group 1 , taken at the o’clock in the morning, in the room temperature from 19- C, in lying position. The blood for analysis has always been taken before the sessions of hemodialysis (HD) after a hunger condition of 12 hours, with 5 consecutively measurements and without the usage of the hypolipidemic medications. The attained results present the average values obtained from the five measurements in identical conditions. The obtained blood for examination (3ccm serum) with some drops of heparin has been sent for analysis in the Institution of Clinical Biochemistry at the Clinical Center of the Medical Faculty in Skopje. The profile of apolyprotein –E was analyzed at 120 patients from whom 66=males and 54=females cured with continuous hemodialysis over 24 months in the Department of Nephrology with Hemodialysis and the Clinical of Nephrology in the Medical Faculty in Skopje. Results: From the Table 4 all the uremic patients treated with HD manifested high values of apolypoproteine-E and, compared to the control group of the healthy persons (apo-E=3.40± 2.70mg/dl) there was a significant statistic difference with p=0.0001 from all the basic diseases which lead to hemodialysis, but the fact is that patients with diabetes and diabetic neuropathy have shown higher values of apo-E in comparison to other people with basic diseases ( renal polycistose=7.80+-3.70 mg/dl etc.) . Higher values were detected in patients with arterial hypertension(6.50+- 3.10 mg/dl), values that are in a correlation with many studies concerning apo-E.
Keywords: Apolipoproteina-E (Apo-E); Uremia, ESRD.