Vitamin D’s main role is to regulate bone metabolism and calcium and phosphorus levels in the body, so it is not surprising if you generally associate vitamin D with keeping your bones strong and healthy. Over the past several years, though, other vitamin D roles have been examined, including its role in heart disease, cancer, and
autoimmune conditions, like Hashimoto’s and Graves’ disease. Let’s delve a bit deeper into the basics of vitamin D, and what a deficiency in this vitamin may mean for your thyroid health.
Research has found a link between Vitamin D deficiency and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), which are Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease. For example, one study found that the presence of vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, as compared to healthy patients
(72 percent versus 31 percent, respectively).Other research has found an association between vitamin D deficiency and the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies, hinting that vitamin D deficiency may be a trigger for the development of autoimmune thyroid disease.
Lastly, early research suggests that vitamin D supplementation may help manage thyroid disease. For instance, one study demonstrated that antibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease significantly decreased as a result of taking vitamin D at 1,000 IU per day for one month.
The bottom line here is that vitamin D may play a role in a person’s thyroid health, but whether or not there is a direct link between vitamin D deficiency and the development or progression of autoimmune thyroid disease remains unknown.
Keywords: Vitamin D, deficiency, thyroid gland, hormones, autoimmune thyroid disease.
Vitamin D’s main role is to regulate bone metabolism and calcium and phosphorus levels in the body, so it is not surprising if you generally associate vitamin D with keeping your bones strong and healthy. Over the past several years, though, other vitamin D roles have been examined, including its role in heart disease, cancer, and
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology with a wide spectrum of radiological appearances and almost invariably pulmonary involvement. Lung involvement accounts for most of the morbidity andmuch of the mortality associated with sarcoidosis. Imaging contributes significantly to the diagnosis and management of patients with sarcoidosis. In typical cases, chest radiography may be sufficient to establish the diagnosis with little margin of error and CT is not necessary. However, CT can play a critical role in several clinical settings: atypical clinical and/or radiographic findings; normal or near-normal chest radiograph but clinical suspicion of sarcoidosis; and detection of complications. Moreover, in many patients, CT findings are atypical and unfamiliar to most radiologists (e.g. sarcoidosis mimicking other lung diseases and vice versa), and in these cases histological confirmation of the diagnosis is recommended. CT is also useful in assessing disease extent and may help to discriminate between reversible and irreversible lung disease, thus providing critical prognostic information.
This review concentrates on the more difficult imaging aspects of sarcoidosis, in particular differential diagnosis and disease complications.
Key words: sarcoidosis, LN, neoplasm etc
By the mid-1960s a multitude of nuclear particles were discovered and one of the most important scientific issues was what the fundamental elements of the substance were. The proton dispersion experiments from protons from the early 1970s made it clear that hadrons were not elemental objects. on the other side of Hadron spectrum research.
Murray Gell-Mann and George Weing independently suggested that all. These particles are made of quartz. for a long time the quartz was considered only as a good mathematical way for the evaluation of quantum numbers and not as true physical bodies. Despite the hadrons, for leptons, there is still no evidence of the existence of their structure. So today it is assumed that leptonites are elemental particles while hadrones are made up of essential ingredients of matter. The Standard Model is the exact mathematical theory of the motion of small particles of matter – elemental particles whose predictions agree with the results of many experiments.
Keywords: nuclear particles, standard model, exact theory, elemental particles
Red blood cell (RBC) antibody screening is an obligatory part of our national blood testing strategy. It has been performed on regular basis, on every donation from each donor. In the last decade we have introduced more sensitive methods for detecting RBC antibodies.
Aim of the study:To estimate the prevalence and the nature of the irregular RBC antibodies detected in the period from 2009 to 2014 and to analyze demographic characteristics of blood donors with specific antibodies.
Material and methods:A total of 158170 blood units were screened for irregular RBC antibodies using pooled screening cells (2 donors) in combination with the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT), performed by gel technique and the automated system TechnoTwin Sampler. Samples with confirmed positive antibody screening were subjected to antibody identification with commercial red cell panels (DiaMed and Ortho). We used blood donor data from the donor information system.
Results:The total number of samples with positive antibody screening was 122 (0.078%). The ratio of female to male donors with positive antibody screening was 64 (52%): 58 (48%) respectively. Specific antibodies were identified in 67(55%) out of 122 samples from which 53 (79.1%) were clinically significant (CS). The overall
prevalence rate of the specific antibodies was 0.04%. The specificity of antibodies was as fallows: anti-D, 15 (22%); -E, 11 (16%); -C, 4 (6%); -c, 3 (4.5%); -Cw, 2 (3%); -K, 13 (19.5%); -Kpa, 2 (3%); -Fya, 1 (1.5%); -Lua, 2 (3%); – M, 11 (16.5%); -P, 2 (3%) and anti-Leb, 1 (1.5%). The average age in donors with CS antibodies was 48.2 years.
The average number of donation prior to the antibody detection was 1.7 with mean interval between donations of 1.8 years.
Conclusion:The prevalence of RBC irregular antibodies in our blood donors is very low mainly due to the good donor selection programme, as well as to the currently used screening method which contributes to the decrease of false positive and nonspecific reactions. The low prevalence of antibodies raises the question of cost-effectiveness of red cell antibody screening on regular basis. However, permanent donor education and further analysis of the possible impact on the safety of our blood supply is essential to establish cost-effective and safe RBC antibody screening model by targeting of donors which are at particular risk of RBC alloimmunization.
Key words: blood safety, red blood cell, antibody screening, antibody specificity
Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic and anthropometric anomalies that directly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic syndrome has become a worldwide health problem due to the pandemic size it has taken. According to doctors, this syndrome is quite problematic because it causes a risk for cardiovascular disease and for type 2 diabetes.
Leptin is mainly secreted by the adipose tissue, and other tissues such as the placenta, the brain, the ovaries, the liver, and the skeletal muscles. Leptin plays an important role in fetal growth and in metabolism, thermogenesis, regulates the onset of puberty, hematopoiesis, osteogenesis and reproductive function.
High levels of leptin and insulin during critical periods of development that in the fetal period lead to hyperphagia, obesity and hyperinsulinemia.The serum leptin values are usually proportional to the amount of adipose tissue, therefore most obese people are considered to be leptin-resistant rather than having leptin deficiency. Plasma leptin values increase with increasing fat mass and descend rapidly in the urine. Leptin stimulates physical activity, heat and energy production. As a pro-inflammatory cytokine affects the regulation of hematopoiesis and lympopoiesis.
Key words: metabolic syndrome, Leptin, Interleukine, lipid status.
Small and medium enterprises are of particular importance to the economy of a country. They are enterprises that aim to use the most advanced technology in their business. This makes them highly competitive in the market and stable in the long run. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have a significant impact on the growth of employment in certain countries.
The purpose is to identify the problems, obstacles and barriers that influence the development of their activities, while identifying the main directions for increasing their role in the Kosovo economy. The finalization of this paper will also enable adequate addressing of the difficulties and problems faced by businesses, and will enable the issuance of the necessary recommendations for greater business development steps by creating facilities and support for economic activities, which develop them in order to support economic and employment in responsibility for future generations and create an environment for economic development of the
Keywords: economy, business, development, employment etc.
Interdiction: The purpose of this paper is that through regular follow up, survey, for four years, on period from 2014 until 2017, of main ten, health indicator in Kosovo prisons, to present the pathway of those diseases. Based on the results of the survey, to compare, analyze and address the topics for taking adequate measures to maintain and advance the qualitative treatment.
Material and Methods: Are based on data processing followed by regular protocols for 4 years in prisons in Kosovo. The data are verified, compared and presented as they appear during above mentioned period. The compare of data are performed during the years with number of inmates admitted, using the personal medical files and periodic official reports on those indicators.
Results and discussions: During the period for 4 years (2014 – 2017) the ten main health indicators at Kosovo prisons ha, mostly the linear pathway, except psychotic syndrome that had a rapid decrease end than again linear light increase and infective diseases that had the rapid decreases all the time.
The four indicators as respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurotic and locomotory, are at the high percentage, more than 50% of overall inmates circulated at all those four supervised years.
Conclusions and recommendations: The continuing of the follow up of the main health indicators in Kosovo Prison Health Service is an imperative. To maintain under control those health indicators is very important. The Neurotic syndrome and urogenital disorders are increasing and need to take more care about them. Other
indicators at the moment are in linear decrease, but need to be observed and regular maintain to decrease cases and percentage of the diseases.
The general hygienic conditions and food has to be followed and to be find the case of those four indictors with more the 50% values of the cases for the purpose of improving them as much as possible in function of quality of health care in the prisons.
Keywords: pathway, health, indicators, cases, percentage, increase, decrease, observes, reduce, etc.
Plastic is a low cost, lightweight and durable material with a wide range of uses. As a consequence of its great use, plastic production has increased considerably over the last 60 years. Its current use and storage levels cause environmental problems. Much of the plastic produced each year is used to create packaging for different items or other short-term use products that are dropped within a year of production. However, current use of plastics is not sustainable. Because of the durability of polymers, considerable amounts of plastic are accumulated as waste at landfills and natural habitats.
Recycling is currently one of the most important actions that reduces these negative impacts and has found great application in the plastics industry.
Innovative ideas are of great importance in this regard as they enable us through creative thinking to find methods for recycling plastics for reducing environmental impact and resource depletion.
This paper presents an innovative idea realized by personal creative thinking, which resulted in the creation of an incubator from baby bottle sterilizer and which will serve for the development of poultry embryos under in vitro conditions.
For the creation of this equipment, material is mainly made of plastics and rubber, materials which in nature cannot be broken down by microorganisms.
The importance of this innovative idea lies in the fact that the removal of such non-biodegradable material in nature has been avoided by utilizing it for the creation of equipment that will serve us to carry out studies in the field of poultry embryology.
Key words: plastic, recycling, waste, environment, innovative ideas, incubator.
In Macedonia wild harvesting of medicinal plants from natural habitats remains very popular tradition and practice. There is concern due to the great amount of biomass collected every year; especially regarding plants classified as vulnerable and some classified as threatened. Therefore, is of extraordinary importance to understund how functional it is supplay chain of commercially traded species related to conservation.
Material and Methods
Field work was conducted between June 2004 and July 2016. Information was gathered in 40 local markets from 80 selected selers of medicinal plants all over 60 years by using quantitative market research i.e in-depth interviews.
Results and discussions
A total of 128 medicinal plants belonging to 41 families were recorded. Of them the following species were observed to be in high demand: Achillea millefolium L., Hypericum perforatum L, Mentha piperita L., Sambucus nigra L., Sideritis scardica Griseb., Thymus serpyllum L., and Urtica dioica.
Conclusions and recomendations
Commercial trade plays a significant threat to medicinal plant species.In line with this in Macedonia has made little effort. Therefore, we strongly recomend that the designed list of prioritized species for conservation form this research, to be used by the authoritiesincluded in this issue.
Keywords: Conservation – Medicinal plants – Macedonia.
The water samples were carried out over a certain period of time on the basis of which the water quality in the physico-chemical and bacteriological aspects was tested. Based on these analyzes, the possibility of using water for drinking in water resources was tested, so this work is divided into two parts, the theoretical part and the practical part.
In the first part, general theoretical knowledge of water is provided, while in the second part are given the general analysis of drinking water in the villages of Prizren municipality where samples were taken, in hilly and mountainous settlements where residents use water wells, Prizren’s drinking water, and the values gained during
the analysis of the Sharr mountain thermal waters. The standard methods of analysis are used for these researches, and it is worth mentioning that the base work has a structure that speaks about all the results achieved and the deficiencies of these waters that are found in these countries that people use for their needs.
When it comes to the pollution of the environment, here is certainly the contamination of drinking water which is a very serious problem that preoccupies and disturbs the population, this is due to negligence of people or in different settlements with urban and municipal wastewater or even industrial ones.
Keywords: drinking water, water samples, environmental pollution, surface urine.
This is the first paper of systematic research on macromycetes in the area of Chelojca Mountain massif. In this article, a list of tericolous and lignicolous macromycetes (Basidiomycota and Ascomycota) recorded on oak forest (Quercetum frainettocerris macedonicum) and fagus forest (Calamintha grandiflorae-Fagetum macedonicum on Chelojca mountain massif is given. The material was collected in spring, summer and autumn of 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2017 years in a variety of substrates. The found typesare recorded in some localities such as nearSerbicavill.,Novoselevill., in different altitude (900-1650 masl). Of total 60 fungi provided in this paper, one specie belongs to the phylum Ascomycota and 58 to Basidiomycota. Also, 42 species are tericolous, and 18 are lignicolous. The most numerous orders are: Agaricales (25), Russulales (11), Boletales (10) etc. From the genus dominate: Amanita (7), Boletus (6), Lactarius (5) and Russula (4) species.
The main part of the species (31) are saprobes, 24 are mycorrhisal and 5 are parasites. Some of the species such as: Amanita crocea, Lactarius serifluus, Entoloma chalybeum, Panaeolus semiovatus, Peziza vesiculosa and Sphaerobolus stellatus could be highlighted as rare. Some of the most frequent species are: Amanita rubescens, Armillaria mellea, Gymnopus dryophilus, Marasmius oreades, Russula cyanoxantha, Stereum hirsutum etc. Аs economically significant fungi can be mentioned: Boletus edulis, B. aestivalis, Cantharellus cibarius, Amanita caesarea, Pleurotus ostreatus, etc.
Keywords: fungi, macromycetes, ecology, distribution, Chelojca Mountain, Kichevo.
Depressive diseases are part of the worst clinical disease group around the world. They show up in their different forms of presentation up to about 20% of the population. Thinking, feeling, social relationships and almost all life are affected. Despite its great importance, depression is often not recognizes or treated
This cause suffering and loss of quality of life for affected persons and their relatives. In recent years there was a clear view that depression is a chronic illness due to stress and as a result, the term “stress-depression” has also emerged. It is a risk factor for the emergence of other dangerous massive diseases such as heart attack,
apoplexy, osteoporosis and diabetes.
Based on the data from 2000 to 2011, the highest depression countries are Ireland with about 96.8% followed by Australia with 89%, Canada 86%, Denmark with 85%, Sweden with 79%, these data also correlate with degree of use of antidepressant drugs. 
Depression is a serious illness that can be cured. It is not a state of normal boredom it is not a disorder but in the past years is shown some tables that include all the factors and impact of the treatment of depression.
Keywords: Chronic depression, depressive diseases, treatment.
Introduction: Dogs are a reservoir for a very huge number of endo and ectoparasites. These parasites not only affect the dogs health and wellbeing but are important zoonotic agents.
Aim: To know the situation of the most common parasites present in Tetova region and the public health concern from them.
Material and Methods: During 2017 a total of 264 dogs are tested for the presence of endoparasites with the centrifugation-flotation technique and for the presence of ectoparasites by a complete examination of the skin.
Results: In our study we observed that the potential zoonotic genera of parasites found in dogs and their percentage were: Ancylostoma caninum (26,8%), Trichuris vulpis (17,1%), Toxocara canis (8,5%). The most
common ectoparasites found were ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus on 60 dogs (34,2%) followed by Ixodes ricinus in 23 dogs (13,1%). The endoparasite Angiostrongylus vasorum was found only in 1 case.
Conclusion: The present study determines the most common parasites found in dogs of Tetova region, Macedonia. While some dog parasites are highly host-specific, several dog parasites as Ancylostoma caninum
or Toxocara canis are important from the veterinary and human perspective. This article presents the situation of some parasites of the region studied and some important information regarding public health concerns and a better management of some zoonotic parasites.
Keywords: dogs, ecto – endo parasites, zoonosis.
Pain is defined as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage”. Many patients present to the Emergency Department (ED) in pain. In addition, the management of pain constitutes an essential skill of nurses in general and emergency nurses in particular. However, the accurate assessment of pain intensity and relief represents a clinically
challenging undertaking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the most common symptoms that appear in the emergency department, with focus in pain symptom, which require adequate educational preparation and knowledge to deliver safe and quality patient care. This cross sectional observational study was conducted in the emergency department of the Vlore Regional Hospital, Albania during March and June 2016. A standard questionnaire based on the literature was used to assess symptoms of the patient. The administration was made by nursing students while performing their teaching practice in hospital. The numeric 0–10 scale was used for the evaluation of symptoms (0=not at all; 5=moderate; 10=worst possible). A total of 45 patients were the study sample. They were excluded patients in critical condition and those who could not respond to answers. An oral consent was given by each patient after they were informed. Average age of patients was (55.11 ± 17.7) years.
Pain: cut point 6 for the 26.26% (n=12) of patients, while cut point 7 and 8 of pain reported by the same percentage 15.56% (n=7). The pain in head and chest were the most common clinical presentation, respectively
(46.67%) and (40%). Most frequent diagnoses were High blood pressure and Vertiginous Syndrome. A coordinated care intervention with the primary care to reduce emergency department presentations among
chronically ill patients, and knowledge of the most common symptoms of patients by staff nurses, with focus in the management of pain, operating in the emergency care are essential for the improvement of patient health outcomes.
Keywords: pain, emergency department, symptom, wellbeing, nurse, tiredness.
Xerostomia is defined as a condition or feeling of dry mouth resulting in biochemical changes in the amount and composition of the saliva which may present further complications in the oral health.
Hyposalivation is defined as an objective assessment of a reduced rate of salivary flow. Benzodiazepines and antidepressants constitute the most frequently prescribed drugs with anxiolytic activity that can give rise to hyposalivation. Diabetes mellitus, although a metabolic disorder, usually sent with one of the first oral symptoms such as xerostomia.
Taste receptors are permanently exposed in smokers where primary effect is stimulation of saliva from hypersalivation acquired by chronic use of cigarettes to pass in hyposalivation.
This paper reviews the current knowledge of the drugs that cause impairment of the creation and flow of saliva and certain conditions that are shipped with the dryness of the mouth.
More than 70 million couples suffer from infertility worldwide. One of the major causes of the decline in semen quality appears to be the elevated level of oxidative stress. Asthenozoospermia causes infertility because when sperm do not have progressive motility, they are unable to reach the egg and fertilize it. In recent years, the use of antioxidants in treatment of infertile men has been suggested, although there is limited evidence about the influence of nutrition on quality of semen. In this cohort study we aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, selenium, L-Arginine, L-Carnitine, LMethionine and L-Phenylalanine on a male previously diagnosed with asthenozoospermia.
The man at age of 30, from Skopje, was supplemented twice daily with a tablet consisted of: Vitamin C (100 mg), Vitamin E (67 mg), Zinc (15 mg), Selenium (200 ug), L-Arginine (250 mg), L-Carnitine (50 mg), L-Methionine (50 mg) and LPhenylalanine (50 mg). Supplementation was done in a period of twelve weeks, from April to July 2017. Semen analysis with microscope phase-contrast was done in andrology laboratory in the policlinic “Bukutest”, with 3 days of abstinence, before and after treatment.
Before starting with the therapy, motility of spermatozoa was 35%, and according to referent values of this laboratory which uses WHO criteria of year 1999, classifies this man as asthenozoospermic. Second semen analysis was done twelve weeks after, and showed significant improvement of motility to 50% which meets the criteria of the WHO and considers the man as normozoospermic.
We assume that vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, selenium, L-Arginine, L-Carnitine, L-Methionine and L-Phenylalanine intake could improve the motility of spermatozoa in men with asthenzoospermia and increases chances for fertilizing the egg.
Key words: Male infertility, Antioxidants, Semen quality, Asthenozoospermia.
Understanding local traditional botanical knowledge concerning medicinal plants, food plants, plants in material culture and plants related to superstitions is essential to the development of a framework for land use practices and believes in isolated regions, and between different cultural groups. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to advance understanding of traditional uses of plants among three ethnic groups living in the southwestern region of Macedonia: Macedonians, Albanians and Turks. We aimed to record wild plant knowledge in southwestern region Macedonia, compare the data arising from the three considered ethnic groups, and compare this data with the other studies previously conducted in the Balkans.
Field work was conducted between January 2015 and March 2016. Information was gathered in 44 localities from 87 selected residents over 60 years using different techniques: face-to-face in depth interviews with knowledgeable elders’ with empirical knowledge; focus group discussions with farmers; face-to-face interviews with protected-areas managers; semistructured interviews with local healers and face-toface in depth interviews with local medicinal plant vendors.
A total of 109 plants species belonging to 86 different families were recorded. Rosaceae and Lamiaceae were the largest families. The study reveals that a total of 560 use(s) are being used in traditional medicinal or food practices as well in other cultural contexts of material culture and superstitions. The most popular ethnomedicinally reported plant species were used as decoctions for treating diseases related to the respiratory and digestive systems. Given the paucity of knowledge about Buglossoides purpurocaerulea (L.) I.M.Johnst., reported by locals to be very effective in urinary system treatment (kidney stones), we recommend phytochemical analysis to prove that there is scientific evidence in the treatment of above mentioned diseases. Documented data was evaluated using evaluative measures of Fidelity Level (FL), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC).
This study shows that elderly residents of southwestern region Macedonia are comprehensive repositories of traditional botanical knowledge. The present study will be beneficial to understund importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation, understand diet and its origins and evolution.
Keywords: Ethnobotany – Biocultural diversity – Medicinal plants – Food culture – Material Culture – Macedonia.
Transfusion transmissible infections (TTI) testing is one of the cornerstones of blood safety. Accurate estimation of the prevalence of TTI markers is essential for monitoring of the donor selection/deferral process as well as for the epidemiological situation in the country.
Aim of the study: the aim of this study is to evaluate the seroprevalence of mandatory tested TTI markers (HBV, HCV, HIV and Syphilis) in blood donors and to estimate the demographic characteristics of blood donors with positive TTI markers in the period of 10 years, from 2007 to 2016.
Material and methods: Blood samples were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV antibodies, anti-HIV (p24 antigen and HIV-1/2 antibodies) and Syphilis (anti-TP) using serological assays (EIA – Enzygnost, Siemens and CMIA – Architect system, Abbott). Repeatedly reactive samples were retested with confirmatory assays: Vidas HBsAg Ultra, Immunoblot Deciscan HCV Plus and RecomLine HCV.Demographic data (sex, age, number of donations andethnicity) of243 donors with positive TTI markers were evaluated using the donor software.
Results: From the total of 269.355 blood units tested, 876 were positive for TTI with the prevalence rate of 0,32%. The number of repeatedly reactive (RR) and confirmed positive (CP) samples was as follows: 831 (0,31%) were HBV RR and 750 (0,28%) were HBV CP; 416 (0,17%) were HCV RR and 122 (0,04%) were HCV CP; 245 (0,10%) were HIV RR and 4 (0,001%) were HIV CP. There were no CP samples for Syphilis in
the analyzed period.The number of confirmatory positive (CP), confirmatory negative (CN) and confirmatory indeterminate (CI) results from the total of 243 HBV and HCV RR donorsin the period from 2013 to 2014 was 149 (61.3%), 84 (34.6%) and 10 (4.1%) respectively. The demographic characteristics of this 243 donors were the fallowing: 103 (69%) first time donors, 128 (86%) male vs. 21 (14%) female, mean age of 34.4 years, mean number of 1.3 donations/donor, 107 (72%) were with Macedonian and 42 (28%) were with Albanian origin.
Conclusion: Blood donation in our country is voluntary, non-remunerated, on regular basis and there are practically no family/replacement donors. Donor selection and deferral criteria are permanently revised. Blood screening and confirmatory testing for TTI is performed according to the standard operating procedures and algorithms which enable deferral and counselling of donors with positive TTI markers. All of this contributes to the low prevalence of TTI markers in our blood donor population as a fundamental to blood safety.
Key words: blood donors, blood safety, transfusion transmitted infections, TTI testing.
Introduction. The term “risk factors” describes the traits of healthy people connected independently with the recurrent cardiovascular disease morbidity. It includes the lifestyle, biochemical and physiological modified traits, and also the personal unmodified traits such as: age, gender, and family history in the recurrent of cardiovascular disease in younger age (male <55 years of age, female <65 years of age).
In general, the concept of risk factors is a great priority in the improvement of the prevention strategy of the coronary diseases.
Aim. To evaluate the predictive ability of risk factors of cardiovascular disease in long-term prognosis of the patients with recurrent myocardial infarct during 3 years period of the patients after a new event of myocardial infarct in the Elbasan region.
Methodology. It is a 3-year cohort, for a period from 2009-2012 to evaluate the prognostic abilities of the clinical traits in the patients where they were hospitalized in undesired long-term results such as the new recurrent infarct. To see the effect of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the recurrent or not in another episode of AMI, we used the analysis curve of survival Kaplan Meier. A rate of p<0.05 is considered significant for the statistics.
Results. At the end of the study 16 patients out of 65 had an interest events (death/recurrent infarct) that is significantly lower its non-occurrence (p 0.05). Changes in the survival rate of individuals according to the normal or high levels of cholesterol, presence or not of the diabetes has statistic changes (Log Rank p<0.05).
Conclusions. Knowledge of the risk factors that are also a prognosis factor in the patient performance with AMI helps in defining patients that need to undergo a more specific check up to avoid these undesired results. This is due to the fact that patients who have been smokers, have diabetes, hypercholesterolemia history are at a higher risk to have a reserved prognosis of the disease (recurrence of myocardial infarct or death).
Keywords: risk factors, acute myocardial infarction, the long-term prognosis, survival.
Results: Despite the tremendous efforts made by international governments and organizations to prevent HIV, HBV and HCV (1, 2) 2015 infections, evidence suggests that transmitting infections continue to spread, taking millions of lives in developing countries ( 3, 7).
Introduction Avoiding professional blood exposure is a primary way to prevent the transmission of HBV, HCV, and HIV into health settings PURPOSE OF PUNISHMENT The importance of the study and the new knowledge that will be gained from it. Through this study it is possible to identify the problems that arise after accidents at work in health personnel, considering that through exposure to different biological fluids it is also possible to transmit the serious HIV, HBV and HCV infectious diseases.
Material And Method. In this study were attended by 220 students and professionals of whom 36 Men – M (16%) and 184 Female – F (84%). This study brings new evidence of the risk of infection by the blood, other body fluids, and the knowledge of the workers’ sudents and health workers about post-exposure measures. In this survey are included 3 Annex A – demographic data, B – general knowledge and C – specific data.
Results. The average age of respondents is the new 51% 23 – 25 years old and 33% 36 – 52 year old with a difference of. of 1.52. Statistical processing reflects that, most 45% of respondents think that breast milk is the body fluid that has the highest propensity for transmitting HBV, HCV and HIV. Despite the small difference between those who are often injured at work 42% and those who are seldom at work 39%, there is a high percentage of the group of injured at work compared to those who have never been harmed, increasing the risk virus transmission. In this case, the injury results in a large difference between the injured with age (26%) compared to the injury with other work injury injuries (74%) and the damage was 91% (41%) compared to the PSH damaged in depth 6 (3%). What was seen as high risk and resulted in a high percentage of individuals who do not report the type of contamination, 112 ( 51% ) were compared to individuals who were contaminated with blood contents at No. 54 (25% ) and other biological fluids to a lesser extent. Positive was at a higher percentage
of 49% of individuals reporting that the crushing and disinfection are the first two actions that are being practiced in the event of contamination and the next step was to consult with the infectious. at a higher 48% than in other reporting links. Also, individuals who think that PEPs should be urgently had a higher 49% than individuals reporting at different PEP times. But what matters and increases the risk is the lack of information in the survey.
Conclusions: This study highlights the continuing need to reduce negative attitudes to HIV, HBV and HCV, and to provide the necessary health education between PSHs, particularly focusing on HBV and HCV prevention. Research project findings can be used to develop awareness-raising interventions to report cases of contact with the carrier fluids of these viruses.
Key words: Student, Knowledge Difference, post-exposure prophylaxis, HBV, HCV and HIV.
A high proportion of maternal mortality in developing countries is caused by abortion, especially in such countries with limited abortion laws. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of abortion and related factors of abortions in Tetovo population during period of 2012 – 2017 years. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Tetovo province. Data were collected from Clinical Hospitals of Tetovo in Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All abortions from 2012 to June 2017 considered as the source population. The risk factors including maternal age, parity, abortion, pregnancy risk factors, maternal nationality, maternity insurance, preterm labor, place of birth, type were compared between normal birth and abortion groups. The data for the research came from 3198 randomly selected pregnant female using structured and questionnaires, data were collected during the period from 201 to June 2017. The results showed that the prevalence of abortion in this study was hight, and there was statistically significant relationship between abortion and maternal age, the higher level of education, socio-economic levels (excluding middle level), the age of marriage, the number of live children. There was no significant relationship between abortion and residence, occupation and type of marriage. Also artificial abortions and missed abortions are in higher rates of induced labour, compare to incomplete, spontaneous abortions and blighted ovum.
Keywords: abortions , prevalence, risk factor.