The use of home and mobile internet has been astronomically increased today. At the global level of customer numbers reached from a few hundred to millions and billions of people who use and are addicted to the Internet.
In 2005 at global level from 6.5 billion people “only” 16% were using the Internet, while in the 2014 year, from 7.2 billion 40% or near 3 billion people were active users of the Internet. According to the 2002 registry of the population in Tetovo with a territory of 261.89 km2, there were 86,580 resident and according to the forecasts of increased birth rate (1.4 ‰) in 2014 there were around 100,000 inhabitants.
In the municipality of Tetovo the increasing of the home accessibility and 3G internet has moved as follows: in 2005 we had only 11% or about 8,000 users, while in 2014 we had 88% or about 82,000 home Internet users. While 3G users have moved as follows: in 2011 we had only 14% or about 10,000 users, while in 2014 we had 55% or about 55,000 users2. Broadband operators(network distributors) in Macedonia, use the following routers type: ZTE h201L, link TL-WR841N TP, TP-LINK TL-WR841N wireless router.
These router have a capacity of 2.4 GHz emission of radioactivity vawes, which scatter radiation in space of 1 to 15 m2 for 24 hours. If we take an average of 10 m2 frequency of electromagnetic distribution multiplied by the family users (in the ratio of 1 to 4), then the “invisible” space of waves comprises an area of near 200 km2. This represents approximately 72% coverage of the territory of Tetovo from 261.89 km2. That means that every 73 meters that we make will be in the field and under the influence of electromagnetic frequencies. These electromagnetic waves are a cause of many different chronic and mental diseases as: insomnia while sleeping near the device or the mobile phone for a long time, damage to the development of children by destroying the protein synthesis that increase body metabolism, skin cell damage, reducing nerve cells, fertility disorders during uterine implantation, provokes cardiac stress, and most controversial theorem that magnetic waves from the mobile phones cause cancer.
Key words: Internet, 3G technology, router, wireless, electromagnetic waves, body damage.
The use of home and mobile internet has been astronomically increased today. At the global level of customer numbers reached from a few hundred to millions and billions of people who use and are addicted to the Internet.
Acute phayngitis is a common infection that is typically managed in the outpatinet setting. While respiratory viruses are responsible for the majority of cases, group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial cause of what is generally reffered to as strep throat. There is much room for improvment in the managment of acute pharyngitis in children and adolescents. Most physicans use appropriate managment strategies, however a substantial number uses inappropriate ones, particularly for children with likelu viral pharyngitis. Efforts to help physicans improve practices will need to be multifaceted and should include health policy and educational approaches.
Infections of throat have a tremendous impact on public health.According to the World Health Organization is noticed that bacterial resistance is growing day by day. Appropriate managment of acute pharyngitis depends on proper use and interpretation of clinical findings, rapid antigen-detection tests and throat cultures.The aim of this study is to see the incidence of sore throat in Tetovo and raising awareness in administration of antibiotic only in patint with positive microbiological analyzes.
Keywords: Acute phayngitis, infection, viruses, bacterial, microbiological analyzes.
Studies that evaluate the risk of hepatotoxicity from statins in hyperlipidemic subjects with elevated baseline serum transaminases are lacking, that’s why we conducted a study to test the hypothesis that patients with elevated baseline liver enzymes have higher risk of statin hepatotoxicity.
Statin treatment has been associated with a broad spectrum of hepatic adverse effects. The most common is an asymptomatic and usually transient elevation of serum aminotransferase levels that often occurs in the first 12 weeks of therapy. Most of the time, this biochemical finding is not correlated with histopathological changes and therefore does not meet criteria as a true indicator of liver injury. Although the underlying mechanism remains unclear, it may result from changes in the lipid components of the hepatocyte membrane, leading to an increase in its permeability with a subsequent “leakage” of liver enzymes. This is supported by the observation that elevations in aminotransferase levels (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] being a more reliable indicator than aspartate aminotranserase) occur with the use of structurally unrelated statins, as well as with other effective lipid-lowering drugs.Thus, the term transaminitis has been adopted to best define this phenomenon of liver enzyme abnormalities in the absence of proven hepatotoxicity. However, it has been proposed that increases in ALT level of more than 10 times the upper limit of normal should be used to differentiate true hepatotoxicity from transaminitis.
Material And Methods
Our study consisted of the following 3 cohorts of patients seen between January 1, 2013 and June 31, 2014: Cohort 1: 70 hyperlipidemic patients with elevated baseline enzymes (AST >40 IU/L or ALT >35 IU/L) who were prescribed a statin; cohort 2: 87 hyperlipidemic patients with normal transaminases who were prescribed a statin; and cohort 3: 114 patients with elevated liver enzymes but who were not prescribed a statin. The effect of statins on liver biochemistries was assessed over a 6-month period after statins were prescribed. Elevations in liver biochemistries during follow-up were categorized into mild-moderate or severe based on predefined criteria.
The incidence of mild-moderate elevations and severe elevations in liver biochemistries in cohort 1 were 4.7% and 0.6%, respectively. Compared with cohort 1, individuals in cohort 2 had lower incidence of mild-moderate elevations (1.9%) but not severe elevations (0.2%). However, between cohorts 1 and 3, there were no differences in the incidence of mild-moderate elevations (4.7% vs. 6.4%) or severe elevations (0.6% vs. 0.4%). Statin discontinuation during the follow-up was similar between cohorts 1 and 2 (11.1% vs. 10.7%)
These data suggest that individuals with elevated baseline liver enzymes do not have higher risk for hepatotoxicity from statins. Management of dyslipidemic patients with high cardiovascular risk and increased liver enzyme levels represents a challenge. In more than one clinical scenario, the physician is confronted with the dilemma of whether to treat with statins, and in every case it is important to weigh the benefits and risks of treatment.
Keywords: hyperlipidemia, satin, hepatotoxicity.
Dysiplidemia remains an important source of risk for cardiovascular disorders .Moreover, patients with other disorders as diabetes type 2 , metabolic syndrome or obesity , often they show a dyslipidemic characteristic phenotype involving low levels of HDL cholesterol and increased LDL-cholesterol. Low level of HDL-cholesterol (< 1.02 mmol / L) in man or ( < 1.29 mmol/ L ) in womens occurs in 1/3 of patients in Europe with dislipedemia and is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disorder. This study aims to analyze the effect of treatment with nicotinic acid, which is known as an effective tool that increases the level of free HDL cholesterol and also a reducing prominent cardiovascular disorders. Also an overview of addition of fenofibrate to statin therapy, as a successful strategy for managing the different nature of dislipedemia or patients with risk for cardiovascular disorders. Keywords: dyslipidemia , cardiovascular disorders, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol fenofibrate, statin therapy.
Family plays by some dramatist have been a recurrent theme that has attracted considerable study in various aspects. The theme has been utilized to display stereotyped American family as stripped of romantic clothing of the polished myth. The playwrights examine how pressures from the exterior world penetrated family realm and led to the disintegration of the American family. They depict nightmare realities that can afflict the American family life. These dramas offer saddening picture of the dynamics of “dysfunctional families”. A dysfunctional family portrays deviation from the ideal balance of family relationships. Disintegrated dynamics among family members bring out an atmosphere of depravity and helplessness. There could be varied reasons for such a bleak downfall into the category of “dysfunctionality”. Thus, this paper handles three modern American plays, Eugene O’Neill’s Long Day’s Journey into Night, Edward Albee’s Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, Sam Shepard’s Buried Child and examines the respective families as portrayed in a modern wasteland.
Key words: family, dysfunction, misfits, marital disintegration.
Introduction; The treatment of kidney stones and urinary tract plays an important role in the daily work of urologist. It affects all age group with a predominance in the fourth and fifth decade of life thus becoming also an important social factor. Relapse of the disease even after a successful treatment with ESWL ,for all kinds of stones , is another reason that these patients to be under careful medical follow even after the treatment.
Purpose; to have a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of the method of breaking the stones in the urinary tract through extracorporeal lithotripsy noting the most favorable conditions that a patient must be a to have a successful treatment . It is also important to know the complications that can come from this type of procedure as well as ways to prevent or avoid them. It is also important the assessment of medical and social costs of treating stones with ESWL compared with other methods of treatment of this pathology.
Methodology; For the realization of this procedure, for several years in the Service of Urology at University Hospital Center,is functioning the Modulith SLXF2 Storz Medical device (Germany). There have been treated both genders from age 9 to 84 years old. The positioning of kidney stones was up to urinary bladder. In most cases the stones were solitary, but are treated cases with more than one stone in the same kidney or both kidneys.
The result; A total of 507 cases were treated for the first time for lithotripsy of which 269 males and 238 females. The highest percentage results in the age group 30 to 60 years old. The most common location has been the pelvis and abdominal part of the ureter. In 84.4% of cases urolithiasis was solitary. In 243 cases a single season was enough, there was only one case where was there a need of7 sessions ,while the rest has done from 2 to 4 sessions. In cases with stones over 20 mm diameter and hydronephrosisis needed to have pre procedures such as stent placement “JJ” or percutaneous nephrostomy.
Recommendations: In order to have a successful treatment is important diagnosing it in early stages of stones formation. Careful tracking of patients after lithotripsy helps in preventing the relapse of disease.
Keywords; stones, kidney, lithotripsy,ESWL,Modulith.
Introduction. The ensemble of woman obstetrical history (personal and family history of premature birth, abortion experience, the distance between births, parity status and pregnancy planning) is an important determinant in adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth.
Aim. The assessment of the impact of obstetrical history on development of preterm birth in Tirana.
Metodology. A case control study was conducted in obstetrical hospitals during the period March 2012-January 2013 in Tirana. The group of cases consists of 200 women who had a preterm birth and the control group consisted of 400 women who had a birth at term. Information on obstetric history elements were taken through a questionnaire with women conducted during the hospital stay after birth.
Results. A history of preterm birth in women’ mothers or sisters and the experience of a previous preterm birth substantially increase the likelihood of development of preterm birth (OR = 4 and OR = 52 p <0.05). Unplanned pregnancy and a space between conception of current pregnancy and last pregnancy <18 months increase the likelihood of development of preterm birth (OR = 1.8 and OR = 2.4 p <0:05). The experience of abortion and parity status does not affect the likelihood of development of preterm birth. Conclusion. The obstetrical history has a significant impact on the development of preterm birth in the population of Tirana. Early recognition of the obstetrical history has an important role in the prevention of preterm birth. Key words : obstetrical history , preterm birth, case control, Tirana
Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic multisystemic disease with unknown causes. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis reported up to 1% of the world population. It is characterized by symmetrical involvement of articulation, leading to articulation erosions and patients’ disability. Early diagnosis and treatment with aggressive therapy enables stopping of progression of disease toward the severe form.
Objective: Evaluation of the relationship between laboratory markers of disease and clinical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with the intended to use of laboratory markers in early determining of the disease activity.
Methodology. 100 patients were involved diagnosed with RA based on the American College of Rheumatology criteria in 1987 and who met the study exclusion were involved in the study. These patients were clinically evaluated by DAS28 index and divided into three groups (mild, moderate and severe) based on the disease activity. Then, these three groups were compared for value of RF, anti-CCP, CRP and ESR to identify any significant difference among the group.
Results: The value of serological and acute inflammation phase markers has a positive relationship with the RA disease activity and each of them can orientate on the early assessment of disease activity. A combination of markers value should be considered a very good algorithm for determining the prognoses of RA disease activity.
Conclusions: Use of laboratory markers on defining of the disease activity can help in early diagnosis of aggressive stage disease and thus in the early.
Key words: rheumatoid arthritis, laboratory marker, disease activity, relation
Introduction: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. AMI can be defined accordance with clinical perspectives, electrocardiogram, biochemical, echografike images and pathological features.
Aim: Evaluation of impact of demographic factors (age and gender) in incidence of undesired results (death/myocardial infarction acute recurring) during 3 years. The course of patients with a new episode of myocardial infarction in Elbasan region.
Methodology. It is a cohort study during 2010-2012 in Elbasan region which includes patients who have had a new episode of AMI that have been admitted to hospital in Elbasan. The datas were collected for each individual regarding if the undesired results happened or not (event interest is death/acute myocardial infarction repeated) time of occurrence of undesired results, the age at AMI (first episode) and gender.
Results.There are included 65 patients in the study and at the end of it 16 of them had an event of interest (reinfarct) that is significantly lowerer than non-repeating (p0:05). The age of patients with recurrence of AMI is significantly higher than the age of patients without recurrence of AMI (71.5 vs. 64.7 in t test p<0:05). Conclusions. Demographic factors affected in different ways on prognosis of patients with AMI. Old age provides a recurrence of his long-term development while the gender does not affect the long-term prognosis. Keywords: impact, demographic factor, AMI, prognos.
The family Saturniids (Saturniidae Boisduval, 1837) are present in all continents. They are divided into nine subfamilies, of which only two are present in Europe and in Republic of Macedonia (Agliinae and Saturniinae). In Europe 10 species аrе known. In the subfamily Agliinae belongs 1 species, 9 species belongs to the subfamily Saturniinae. Of these four species: Saturnia (Eudia) pavonia (Linnaeus 1758), Actias isabellae (Graells 1849), Antheraea (Antheraea) pernyi (Guérin-Méneville 1855) and Samia cynthia (Drury 1773) are with a narrow range of distribution and are not present in the Republic of Macedonia.
Key words: faunistics, Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, Republic of Macedonia
Franchising is a method of organizing the vertical production process of supplying goods or services to consumers. It can be an efficient means of supplying some types of goods and services.
The paper is focused on the development of franchising (particularly in transitioning economies like Albania), which has become an increasingly important method of retail distribution. It presents important and difficult issues for competition policy. Its success in the market-place suggests that it is a form of distribution that can offer real commercial advantages and efficiencies. Many EU countries have no specific competition policy for franchise agreements. According to economic analysis, territorial restrictions may enhance efficiency by limiting competition.
The paper concludes that competition policy may have a number of objectives other than increasing economic efficiency.
The author recommends that competition policy should consider market structure in determining when a vertical restraint is acceptable. Vertical restraints are very unlikely to harm economic efficiency or reduce competition in a properly defined market when its structure, conditions of entry, and dynamics ensure that the franchise will face competition from other franchise systems or from products or services distributed in other ways. Conversely, in less competitive markets the risk is much greater that vertical restraints can be used to reduce competition or otherwise reduce economic efficiency.
Keywords: Franchising, competition policies, economy, Albania, EU.
The new technologies implemented in the garment industry have changed the way of garment production. Advancements of 3D technology and computer graphics have reduced the cost and the process steps of garment industry. These software offer different tools for garment design and simulations. Through avatar personalization, this paper aims to show the impact of body shapes on garment fit. Personalized avatars have been created by modifying parametric avatars available in the 3D software packages, by using manual and digital body dimensions of the real persons. Both types of personalized avatars are compared using an advanced software for data manipulation. Further comparison between personalized avatars through digital dimensions and personalized avatars through control standard body dimensions, will show up the impact of body shapes on garment fit. The tests are made in some garment models as skirts, dress and pants. Advanced virtual simulation will show the impact of fabric types on garment fit by generating the stress, strain and fit maps.
Keywords: CAD systems, personalized avatars, virtual fit, tension maps.
Foot is an important part of human body. Producing footwear with the right fit is an important task for footwear manufacturers. Due to complex anatomy of the foot, the accuracy of foot dimensions is a critical issue related with feet comfort. Conventional method for taking foot dimensions have been used for a long time. Nowadays, the advancements of 3D technology have shown a growing interest for foot digitalization and extracting accurate foot dimensions. This paper aims at the measurements extraction from 3D foot model. The comparison of the performance between two low cost scanning systems in terms of accuracy, standard deviation, average deviation and RMS error will be considered. To study the discrepancy between scanned and manual data, the comparison through traditional method for taking foot dimensions referring to standard S SH ISO 9407 2000 will be followed. Comparison results between scanned and manual data will show the usefulness of implemented systems for digitizing and extracting foot dimensions.
Keywords: 3D foot scans, measurements extraction, foot dimensions, data comparison.
One of the genes involved in drug metabolism, CYP2C19 gene, is a member of cytochromoxydase P450 family enzymes. CYP2C19 is a human enzyme involved in metabolism of clinically important drugs, such as omeprazole, diazepam and proguanil. Some alellic variants, which modify the enzymatic activity are found in human populations. CYP2C19 *2 and CYP2C19 *3 are the most frequently defective alleles in Orientals and Caucasians. CYP2C19*2 allele in Balkan region was found at a frequency about 13%.Frequency of allelic variants CYP2C19*1(WT) and CYP2C19*2 are characteristic for each ethnic population and identification of these alleles in Albanian population represent new genetic data, that complete the puzzle of Balkan region for CYP2C19 gene variants. Moreover, genetic variants of CYP2C19 could give indications about the correct use of drugs in patients therapy, according to CYP2C19 individual genotype. In our study we applied a PCR – RFLP protocol, based in DNA amplification (PCR) and digestion by restriction enzyme SmaI. Gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-RFLP products can identify directly the genotypes of the individuals. We analysed the DNA, extracted from blood EDTA samples, from a group of 40 healthy individuals, randomly selected.We found 62.5% homozygote genotypes CYP2C19*1/*1, 35% heterozygote genotypes CYP2C19 *1/ *2 and 2.5% homozygote genotypes CYP2C19*2/*2. The frequency of CYP2C19*2 allele was found to be 20%, and the frequency of wild type allele CYP2C19 *1 was found to be about 80%. These preliminary results suggested a particular pattern of CYP2C19 *2 and *1 alleles in Albanian population. The frequency of CYP2C19 *2 allele is the higher found in European populations.
Keywords: drug metabolism, CYP2C19, genetic polymorphism, Albanian population.
Canon was transmitted from generation to generation with the same mechanism as language or folklore, as an oral tradition, in oral multiple circulation. One of the basic features of the Canon is precisely the mechanism of transmission of this legal and ethno cultural information. In the way of examining legal tradition it continued to be ignored as one of the basic laws of the science of anthropology: the power of oral traditions ceases to operate as they are overwritten, thus “they appear as written discourse”.
There were many distinguished authors of Albanian literature who in one way or another, have approached to the “canon” with their literature, since the national Renaissance until today, within and outside Albania, Kosovo and other Albanian territories, to Arberesh and abroad. But his ideas on Canon, Fishta, will perfectly expound in the study preface that accompanies the study work of Gjeçov.
If to the “murderers” we have a lyrical blast of a new poet to the end of the nineteenth century, forty years later, to the same author we have a writer and a sterling scholar through drifts of the first decades of the twentieth century, who will have sat to write his essay study on the Canons under the weight of two murders, two “blood feuds”, the first in 1899 who had taken his brother and the second in 1929 (thirty years later) that had taken his brother’s command, for the religious and cultural mission, who was the author of the Kanun, where the latter was a Slav revenge against an Albanian that showed off the cultural monuments light of his nation.
Keywords: Canon, customary law in the written literature, Albanian literature, Fishta, Shtjefan Gjeçov, etc.
Hypersensitivity reactions to β-lactam and non-β-lactam antibiotics are commonly reported. They can be classified as immediate or nonimmediate according to the time interval between the last drug administration and their onset. Immediate reactions occur within 1 hour after the last drug administration and are manifested clinically by urticaria and/or angioedema, rhinitis, bronchospasm, and anaphylactic shock; they may be mediated by specific IgE-antibodies. Nonimmediate reactions occur more than 1 hour after the last drug administration. The most common manifestations are maculopapularexanthems; specific T lymphocytes may be involved in this type of manifestation. The diagnostic evaluation of hypersensitivity reactions to antibiotics is usually complex. The patient’s history is fundamental; the allergic examination is based mainly on in vivo tests selected on the basis of the clinical features and the type of reaction, immediate or nonimmediate. Immediate reactions can be assessed by immediate-reading skin tests and, in selected cases, drug provocation tests. Nonimmediate reactions can be assessed by delayed-reading skin tests, patch tests, and drug provocation tests. However, skin tests have been well validated mainly for β-lactams but less for other classes of antibiotics.
This work introduces a case study about the National Park of Prespa (NPP) in Albanian side, which is dominated by the traditional agriculture practices which allow sustaining the specific characteristic of the biodiversity and the landscape views of the park and also the functions or services of the ecosystem. The agricultural system dominated by the mix extensive agriculture and livestock, traditional extensive methods, low input usage and production diversity, have a great impact to the vegetative compound and the quality of the panorama. A very strong interrelation between the high natural value farming (HNVF), the biodiversity and the traditional landscape guided us to research toward the agriculture classified as HNV within the context of NPP and to identify the space distribution of the agriculture types with HNV to this park. The determination of 3 types of HNV in NPP is focused to the methodological use of the soil (plant coverage), agricultural systems and the access of the species and their habitats, based on a preliminary study onsite. We may argument that the implementation of the HNV farming concept in NPP will facilitate the development of the policies and effective measures for the prevention of the biodiversity and to compile the farmers demand to be supported adequately to the protection of the biodiversity and the sustainable development of the zone.
Key words: high natural value farmland, agricultural systems, biodiversity, traditional agriculture, agricultural landscape, semi-natural grassland, agricultural policies
BACKGROUND: Acenocoumarol and Warfarin are still the most commonly used oral anticoagulants for the treatment of thromboembolic diseases and other hypercoagulable states, which are affected by multiple factors including individual patient characteristics.
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the impact of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and other conditions of patients in Oral Anticoagulant Therapy (OAT) Acenocoumarol/Warfarin- dose requirements.
PATIENTS AND METHOD: In this prospective study we identified 215 outpatients with thromboembolic events and comorbidity taking Acenocoumarol or Warfarin to assess if there was a correlation between individual factors and dosing.
RESULTS: The mean dose of Acenocoumarol/Warfarin was(2.37±1.13 mg and 3.33±1.61 mg, p<0.0001) of the treated outpatients. There was a decrease in dose with increasing age, which averaged 3.1 mg(range 1.3-7.4) for patients under aged 50, 2.9 mg(range 0.7-9.7) for those aged 50-70, and 2.7 mg(range 0.8-9.1) for those aged over 70 years. Mean dose was 2.92 mg/female respectively 2.77 mg/male. A total of 215 patients had BMI range between 13.0 and 42.4 kg/m2. It was found that BMI is correlated weakly with the mean dose of OAT, Correlation coefficient (r)=0.02625(Ideal BMI with mean dose 2.67, above normal BMI with mean dose 2.72 and high BMI with mean dose 2.94 mg). Also, length and weight of all patients was slightly correlated with the mean dose of OAT(r=0.07083, respectively r=0.09991). The average height and weight of all patients was (169.7cm respectively 79.9kg) with significant difference between males and females. CONCLUSION: There is an association between age and the mean dose of OAT (Acenocoumarol/Warfarin). Clinicians should be aware that older patients need reduced doses of OAT but patients with a high BMI will be expected to require higher doses of OAT to maintain the therapeutic INR. Key words: Acenocoumarol, Warfarin, BMI.
The aim of this paper is to study the permutation properties of the Clifford semigroups. We provide some facts about the permutability after Restivo and the permutability after Schein for Clifford semigroups. More specifically we prove that Clifford E-unitary semigroups are permutable after Restivo if and only if their maximal group image is permutable after Restivo. We also check whether free Clifford semigroups are permutable after Restivo and after Schein.
Key words: Clifford semigroup, semigroup permutable after Restivo, semigroup permutable after Schein, maximal group image, free Clifford semigroups.
The phraseology constitute a major asset semantically mentality of the people. They are not merely interesting in terms of what and how the manner of say, but characterized by a depth of thought which has more clearly than anyone else resident of the area. In Gjakova phraseology carry a significant weight using extensive vocabulary, as population here has a high exponent of speech. The people in Gjakova have been and are very creative in terms of language, to create sayings and expressions that remain long or permanently linguistic richness of the area. Also, they are more attentive to events or occurrences, characteristics or traits of people and time to live, to as such in the process and discourse often use phraseological units associated with these phenomenes. The subject is presented with some dialectal differences, hues, shades of phonetic and semantic variants. They are an expression of intense and complex, which in no way can be broken down or explained literally but must be captured and used as phraseological unit as a whole. Also appear idioms, sentence, mergers free speech or enhanced phrases of frazeology. Observed hundreds of cases of idioms arising as dialectal variants literary types of frazeology but often, in the field phraseological is difficult to set a boundary between what is conceived as literary and dialectal. Yet consider that this is only a fraction of the Albanian phraseological property.
Key words: phraseology, mentality of the people, exponents of speakers, semantic connotation, dialect, linguistic variation.